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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled model (CM3). AM3 is built upon the scientific and software framework of GFDL AM2 ( Anderson et al. 2004 ). Its major developmental thrusts were chosen to enable AM3 to explore several key, emerging questions in climate and climate change that could not be addressed with AM2, such as: 1) What are the roles of aerosol–cloud interactions, specifically indirect effects of aerosols? 2) What are the dominant chemistry–climate interactions? AM3

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

the total anthropogenic impact of greenhouse gases, and aerosol direct and indirect effects between PD and PI conditions: where F PD and F PI are PD and PI net global mean top-of-the-atmosphere radiation fluxes (positive downward). Total anthropogenic RFP incorporates the effects of fast atmospheric responses to greenhouse gases and aerosols but not slower responses because of changes in sea surface temperatures. Because fast processes are considered, both the first indirect effect (“cloud

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

, 1996 : The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 437 – 471 . Kopp , G. , G. Lawrence , and G. Rottman , 2005 : The total irradiance monitor (TIM): Science results . Sol. Phys. , 230 , 129 – 139 . Kopp , R. E. , J. X. Mitrovica , S. M. Griffies , J. Yin , C. C. Hay , and R. J. Stouffer , 2010 : The impact of Greenland melt on regional sea level: A preliminary comparison of dynamic and static equilibrium effects . Climatic Change

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