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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

2011 ; Greenheck 2002 ). It is a repository of the evolutionary history of biodiversity ( Sechrest et al. 2002 ) and a bridge between North and South America for mammals ( MacFadden 2006 ), birds ( Weir et al. 2009 ), and plants ( Gentry 1982 ). Countries in the region have developed national and regional policies for integrating biodiversity conservation and development [e.g., the Central American System of Protected Areas ( http://www.sica.int/ ) and the Puebla–Panama plan ( http

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

effects on regional water balance and this should also be accounted for in the model. Despite these limitations, this study advances an important step beyond previous studies by providing a consistent modeling framework with a sophisticated LSM that accounts for important aspects of anthropogenic water use. In addition, the developed modeling framework can be coupled to its parent GCM to assess potential climate impacts and feedbacks due to anthropogenic disturbance of the terrestrial water cycle. The

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

monitored. To provide more complete spatial coverage of soil wetness, remote sensing has been employed. Until recently, soil wetness signatures were extracted from data coming from instruments designed for other purposes. Early attempts relied on detecting the secondary effects of soil moisture on surface temperature via thermal sensors (e.g., Carlson et al. 1981 ; Wetzel et al. 1984 ). Because of the absorption and excitation properties of water in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

use of land cover monitoring in land surface sciences. As a result, several 1-km global land cover datasets have been produced by multiple research institutions, generally with moderate-resolution optical sensor data. These global land cover datasets have been used for both global and regional studies because they cover all continents and islands with sufficient spatial resolution (1 km). However, comparative analysis of different land cover datasets showed per-pixel agreement of only about 0.6 (e

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

reasonably captures temporal and spatial variability ( Ito 2008 ; Inatomi et al. 2010 ). The simulated regional carbon budget has been compared with those estimated by other models ( Ichii et al. 2010 ), and the findings indicated that the VISIT model provides intermediate estimations. The global results of NPP and LAI have been compared with observational database and satellite remote sensing data ( Hazarika et al. 2005 ; Kato et al. 2009 ). Figure 1 shows the latitudinal distributions of runoff

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

cover of forests and frequent rainfalls. AsiaFlux, the Asian network of regional flux tower networks, has been conducting the long-term measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) and CO 2 fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) system and has provided a series of gap-filled ET datasets. There are 18 forests sites out of 23 sites whose data are available through the AsiaFlux database ( https://db.cger.nies.go.jp/asiafluxdb/ ). Considering the important contribution of E WC to ET, it is essential to

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