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Tommy G. Jensen

is seen. They explore the feedbacks between oceanic heat content and the atmosphere in a 250-yr-long coupled atmosphere–ocean model over the Indian Ocean with emphasis on composite El Niño and IOD events. Co-occurrence of IOD and El Niño results in particularly strong anomaly patterns. Huang and Shukla, in two papers, use ensemble coupled ocean–atmosphere model runs to determine the link between remote and regional forcing in the Indian Ocean. It is accomplished by using a globally coupled model

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

1995 ; Lanzante 1996 ; Nicholson 1997 ; Klein et al. 1999 ; Venzke et al. 2000 ; Allan et al. 2001 ; Huang and Kinter 2002 ). These warm SST anomalies then extend into the northwestern tropical Pacific and persist there well into early summer ( Zhang et al. 1999 ; Wang et al. 2003 ), which is perhaps the last visible signal of a particular El Niño event. A possible explanation for this wide spread and long-lasting oceanic warming in the Indo–Pacific basin is the cumulative effects of

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

1. Introduction This is Part II of a two-part study on the mechanisms of the interannual variability in the tropical Indian Ocean. The reader is referred to the introduction in the first part of this study ( Huang and Shukla 2007 , hereafter Part I ) and references therein for a discussion of the motivation and background. In brief, we examine the relative importance of the regional air–sea interactions and the remote influences in producing the temporal and spatial structures of the observed

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

processes such as diffusion and mixing are important regionally, for example, the entrance region and the Mozambique channel. 5. No throughflow run: CASE-No In this section we will concentrate on the effects of the ITF on temperature and salinity over the Indian Ocean following the major pathways of the ITF and contrasting the CASE-Ref with CASE-No. An artificial wall is placed across the Indonesian Straits by allowing no net throughflow. The artificial wall may permit the Kelvin wave originated in the

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Jean Philippe Duvel and Jérôme Vialard

–April). The first shortcoming of this approach is the end effect problem inherent in the use of spectral techniques on short time series. These end effects must be reduced by a windowing (i.e., Welch window) but this will truncate/reduce the signal toward the edge of the series and thus reduce perturbations at the beginning and the end of the selected season (the ISV perturbations do not necessarily append in midseason). Increasing the size of the window to overcome this problem however induces a risk of

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

the possible impact of tropical Indian Ocean precipitation on the North Pacific and North American climate during boreal winter of El Niño years. On noting the low correlation between basin-wide indices of Indian Ocean SST and precipitation, some AGCM studies (e.g., Kumar and Hoerling 1998b ) have disallowed the Indian Ocean as a source of predictability. But a careful examination on regional scales indicates evidence for a significant SST–precipitation association in the SWIO ( Fig. 2b ). Having

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J. C. Hermes, C. J. C. Reason, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms

found evidence that this flow through the channel contributes substantially to the seasonality of the Agulhas Current. The eddy-permitting, regional ocean AGAPE model has been shown to realistically reproduce the general circulation of the Agulhas Current system ( Biastoch 1998 ; Biastoch and Krauß 1999 ; Biastoch et al. 1999 ; Reason et al. 2003 ), and we have used this model to investigate the variability of the three source regions on monthly to interannual scales. Since the model is forced

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

estimate of the parameters to be observed and to minimize the detrimental effects of the failure or vandalism of one or more instruments), we will query if any mooring provides the same information as the rest of the array. The outline of the paper is as follows. In section 2 , we will describe the data used in this study. The ocean models (linear and nonlinear) are described in section 3 . The optimal analysis using the linear ocean model is discussed in section 4 . Section 5 introduces the

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

proportional to the Coriolis parameter, f = βy . Thus τ ( x ) is given everywhere by B ( t )  f / β , where B ( t ) = ∂ τ ( x ) /∂ y may vary with time but is spatially constant. (For ease of discussion, flows are described as if they were on a β plane, ignoring the other small effects of curvature in the actual model domain.) With this choice, the Ekman transport − τ ( x ) /( ρf  ) is also spatially constant at − B ( t )/ βρ , is well-defined at the equator (e.g., Miyama et al. 2003 ; Godfrey

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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

investigate the interannual variability in the heat budget of the upper layers of the NIO. In doing so, we also include the effects of the barrier layer and penetrative radiation. This investigation has several advantages over the previous studies mentioned above. The heat budgets of Düing and Leetmaa (1980) and Shenoi et al. (2002 , 2005b ) estimated the budgets for fixed control volumes (50 m thick in the latter). Here, we estimate the heat budget of the mixed layer rather than the budget over a

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