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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

time possible. Such observations arrive at an especially crucial time, as pressing scientific issues related to the rapid and dramatic effects of climatic change at higher latitudes make sustained monitoring of global snowfall extremely important in the coming years. The main goals of this study were to highlight the utility of global CloudSat snowfall observations, illustrate interesting regional differences in the reflectivity and retrieved snowfall-rate distributions, provide necessary

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

relate retrieval discrepancies to land classification and thereby to possible terrain-related explanations. The corrections related to land classification were then implemented and used in the subsequent analyses. These differences suggest that virga, surface emissivity, storm structure, or other factors result in overestimation by AMSU over deserts, grassland, and certain other terrain. These hypotheses are then explored in a preliminary way in section 5 , in which similar effects are sought in MM5

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

buoy data Bourras (2006) assumed the overall regional accuracy of satellite-derived fluxes to be on the order of 20%–30%. To use satellite-derived fluxes for quantitative analyses, Bourras (2006) suggests that these errors need to be 5%–10% lower. Similar numbers were found in comparisons for satellite-derived precipitation datasets (e.g., Adler et al. 2001 ; Beranger et al. 2006 ). In particular, the tropical regions and the high latitudes are prone to large differences between precipitation

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Tufa Dinku, Pietro Ceccato, Keith Cressman, and Stephen J. Connor

difficult-to-access region. As a result, satellite rainfall estimates are the only source of rainfall information over these vast, remote areas. FAO has been using satellite information to monitor desert locusts for a very long time (e.g., Hielkema and Sunders 1994 ). DLIS currently uses rainfall maps specifically prepared for this purpose by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Colombia University ( http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/maproom/.Food_Security/.Locusts/.Regional

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Meike Kühnlein, Boris Thies, Thomas Nauß, and Jörg Bendix

account for the solar zenith angle, the satellite zenith angle, and the relative azimuth angle, the effect of differing viewing and illumination geometries is eliminated in the retrieved cloud properties. These effects of differing viewing and illumination geometries are not considered in the presented approach. Concerning potential uncertainties introduced by neglecting the impact of varying viewing geometries, higher satellite zenith angles would result in a longer path distance for the radiation in

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Song Yang, Fuzhong Weng, Banghua Yan, Ninghai Sun, and Mitch Goldberg

ocean averages, while it could create a notably artificial spatial variation at regional scales, especially when the time in Earth shadow increases considerably during summer 2007. In addition, the RADCAL interference also affects the F-15 85-GHz channels at a lesser degree. Since only 4 months of F-15 datasets affected by the RADCAL interference were involved in this study, their impact on the 85-GHz channels should not substantially change the results from this study. Therefore, we do not

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