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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

versions of GPROF so that the database was only accessed for observations likely to have rain. The CRM database was then interrogated to find a profile that best matches the spectral signature of the satellite observation. However, no distinct precipitation signatures may exist since the observed radiances are affected by a range of factors other than precipitation, including, for example, surface effects and radiometric noise, together with beam-filling effects resulting from the (relatively) large

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

( Scott and Huff 1996 ; Notaro et al. 2013 ) and is therefore an integral component of the Great Lakes hydrologic budget. Lake-effect snow also impacts regional ecology ( Henne et al. 2007 ; Kolka et al. 2010 ) and exerts substantial socioeconomic effects in the Great Lakes basin (e.g., Changnon 1979 ; Schmidlin et al. 1992 ; Norton and Bolsenga 1993 ; Schmidlin 1993 ; Kunkel et al. 2002 ). While ground-based observations of shallow snowfall are plentiful in certain locations like the Great

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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

dependent terrestrial signatures will be required to contrast any change in OSCAT due to precipitation-related effects. The overland azimuth viewing angle dependence of land targets has been examined by ( Bartalis et al. 2006 ), using European Remote Sensing (ERS) scatterometer observations, a fan-beam system that transmits three fixed-angle beams pointing in different directions relative to the spacecraft motion. They found the azimuthal asymmetry to be over 2 dB in urban and agricultural areas. One

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

, especially at the annual scale ( Vrieling et al. 2010 ), and inundation mapping ( Khan et al. 2011 ). Over data-rich areas, satellite-derived precipitation datasets play a considerable role in analyzing the physical processes behind extreme drought and flood events ( Dong et al. 2011 ). Precipitation is a key variable for evaluating climate change effects at different spatial scales ( Trenberth et al. 2003 ). Trenberth et al. (2014) have shown how the way precipitation is analyzed impacts results on

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

4 , with emphasis on both local and regional scales. 2. Data a. High-resolution multisatellite rainfall products The products evaluated are time series of high-resolution (i.e., finer than 0.1°) mapped estimates. Each estimate is an instantaneous snapshot of the surface rain rate at a given time. All the products have a sampling period shorter than 1 h. For all the products, microwave (MW) radiances measured from satellites forming the GPM constellation ( Hou et al. 2014 ) and infrared (IR

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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

to the regional climatologic patterns (note that the terms warm season months and May–August, as well as cold season months and September–November, are used interchangeably in the text). Table 2 lists the mean annual precipitation and runoff accumulations for the selected basins in the two seasons. It is seen that the warm season months’ precipitation/runoff accumulations are almost twice as much as those in the cold season months. A point to note from the table is that in some basins the

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

continents [ Gimeno et al. (2014) , and references therein]. Often they are associated with extreme precipitation, which can lead to flooding (e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Lavers and Villarini 2013 ) but can also alleviate or “bust” ongoing drought conditions ( Dettinger 2013 ). The important hydrological effects of ARs have been widely documented in the semiarid western United States. About 30%–50% of annual precipitation in this region fell during ARs over the period of water years

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

mask, terrain, and land-cover specification, permitting thermal patch effects due to sea breezes and/or land-cover heterogeneity, while the NASA MMF only generates homogeneous surface energy and turbulent fluxes driven by the GEOS4 CLM. Thus, both the MMF and NICAM could be used to examine the impact of variations in the HLCL and large-scale CAPE, while only NICAM is capable of producing a realistic thermal patch effect ( Fig. 4 ). b. Satellite simulators Model-simulated geophysical parameters

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