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S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, and R. Floors

discrepancies between measurements and model counterparts that are due to local terrain effects ( Hahmann et al. 2010 ; Boilley and Mahfouf 2012 ). Observed wind speeds at greater heights can show large differences when using different reanalysis data to reinitialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ( Floors et al. 2013 ). Verification of data assimilation techniques is now possible with the advent of new types of instruments, such as wind Doppler lidars, that observe winds with high

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Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

entrainment layer at the PBL top ( Hong et al. 2006 ). The MYJ scheme uses local closure with prognostic TKE. The UW scheme recently has been implemented in regional (e.g., version 3.3.1 of WRF) and global (e.g., version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model) models. This scheme is TKE based, and it is characterized by the use of moist-conserved variables, an explicit entrainment closure, downgradient diffusion of momentum, and conserved scalars within turbulent layers ( Bretherton and Park 2009 ). The new

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Leslie M. Hartten and Paul E. Johnston

s and the spacing between vertical dwells in the same mode was about 5.3 min. In autumn 2004, the dwell duration was about 40 s for the low mode and 30 s for the high mode and the spacing between vertical dwells of the same mode was about 6 min. Figure 2 illustrates the effects of our quality control on one day’s low-mode data from each cruise; SNR was converted to relative reflectivity before plotting. The original dataset contains some SNRs and spectral widths that are unrealistically large

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