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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

characteristics by incorporating an Urban Canopy Model (UCM). Our study is similar to the work of Georgescu et al. (2012 , 2013) in that we use the WRF + UCM to study the effects on regional climate in the Sun Corridor region. However, our goal is to examine the hydroclimate of the entire corridor region in detail, with our hypothesis being that detailed representation of the hydroclimate of the region can lead to better characterization of the impacts of urbanization on precipitation. To this end, we use

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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

quantitatively, Karl and Knight (1998) analyzed long-term rainfall data during the period 1910–55 and found that the frequency of heavy precipitation events had increased over the United States by about 7% during said period. The change in heavy rainfall frequency has been primarily attributed to increasing greenhouse gases ( Meehl et al. 2000 ). Additionally, regional land-use/land-cover changes (LULCC) can also affect rainfall by altering mesoscale convection ( Pielke et al. 2007 , 2011 ). Urbanization

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

vegetation. Biogeochemical feedbacks from regional land-cover changes have been discussed in the context of global climate change in several studies (e.g., Carter et al. 2007 ; Arneth et al. 2010 ), where it is found that the biogeochemical feedback is too big to be ignored in climate change studies. Biogeophysical effects occur due to changes in the physical properties of the land surface, such as changes in albedo, soil properties, and roughness. The biogeophysical effects include changes in

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

global land cover: Croplands from 1700 to 1992 . Global Biogeochem. Cycles , 13 , 997 – 1027 , doi: 10.1029/1999GB900046 . Schneck , R. , and V. Mosbrugger , 2011 : Simulated climate effects of Southeast Asian deforestation: Regional processes and teleconnection mechanisms . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , D11116 , doi: 10.1029/2010JD015450 . Shukla , J. , C. Nobre , and P. Sellers , 1990 : Amazon deforestation and climate change . Science , 247 , 1322 – 1325 , doi: 10.1126/science

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

number of studies, there remain disparities in modeling results as to the magnitude and sometimes direction of regional and global effects ( Pitman et al. 2009 ; de Noblet-Ducoudre et al. 2012 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ). These inconsistencies have been attributed to differences in how models parameterize albedo, how LUC is implemented, and how crop phenology and evapotranspiration is represented ( Pitman et al. 2009 ). With levels of atmospheric CO 2 expected to increase in the coming century and

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

developed earlier, it rebounded from logging earlier. The Southeast continued logging its natural forests (steep terrain and coastal plains) into the 1920s, exporting lumber to the rest of the United States and the world before reforestation started ( Bronaugh 2012 ). Meanwhile, as rural economies, dependent on local and regional agriculture, descended into poverty, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and timber plantations filled the vacuum of fallow land. The Southeast, now known as the world

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

regional climate. The impacts of dynamic crops have been previously investigated using offline models to examine irrigation water demands ( aus der Beek et al. 2010 ) and in a coupled regional climate model to analyze irrigation’s effects on temperature ( Lu et al. 2015 ), but the effect of dynamic crops on irrigation’s influence on precipitation has not been studied. Previous efforts to estimate the impact of irrigation on the hydroclimate of the central United States have included a wide array of

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Zhijuan Liu, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Shuo Lv, and Jing Wang

Simulator (APSIM) has proven to be an effective tool to simulate the effects of cultivar selection, soil, and management practices on crop growth, development, and yield ( Keating et al. 2002 ; Peake et al. 2008 ; Lv et al. 2015 ; Yang et al. 2015 ). In a previous study ( Liu et al. 2016 ), the mean magnitude of yield loss due to suboptimal agronomic factors was about 40% of the potential yield and varied considerably among climate zones (CZs; 25% ~ 46%). It should be noted that the greater values

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

. , 19 , 163 – 180 , doi: 10.1890/07-2006.1 . Hudiburg , T. W. , B. E. Law , and P. E. Thornton , 2013a : Evaluation and improvement of the Community Land Model (CLM 4.0) in Oregon forests . Biogeosciences , 10 , 453 – 470 , doi: 10.5194/bg-10-453-2013 . Hudiburg , T. W. , S. Luyssaert , P. E. Thornton , and B. E. Law , 2013b : Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions . Environ. Sci. Technol. , 47 , 13 132

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

diverse local and synoptic factors, especially at midlatitude coastal cities where the effects of the UHI on regional influences merge with large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Several studies have documented and modeled the effects of the UHI in regional temperatures and mesoscale flow patterns ( Yoshikado 1992 , 1994 ; Kitada et al. 1998 ; Kusaka et al. 2000 ; Ohashi and Kida 2002 ; Lo et al. 2007 ; Shepherd et al. 2010 ; Dandou et al. 2009 ; Carter et al. 2012

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