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Daniel B. Whitt and Leif N. Thomas

and strong fronts (e.g., D’Asaro et al. 2011 ; Whitt et al. 2014, manuscript submitted to J. Geophys. Res. ), there is ample opportunity for interactions between inertial oscillations and strong geostrophic vorticity (e.g., Mooers 1975 ; Kunze 1985 ; Young and Ben-Jelloul 1997 ; Whitt and Thomas 2013 ). These wave–mean flow interactions may result in regionally elevated internal wave energy and enhanced turbulent mixing in the boundary layer and upper thermocline of the western boundary

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Daniel B. Whitt, Leif N. Thomas, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, and Eric A. D’Asaro

( Fig. 1a ). While the Atlantis made wider ~30-km cross sections around the float, the Knorr made narrower ~10-km cross sections, closely following the float ( Fig. 1b ). The survey strategy involved intensive sampling of the water around a Lagrangian float in the mixed layer in an attempt to minimize the convoluting effects of advection on the analysis. But, it is important to note the observations were obtained in a region of strong lateral and vertical gradients in velocity, and therefore the

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Miles A. Sundermeyer, Eric Kunze, Eric D’Asaro, Gualtiero Badin, Daniel Birch, Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Jörn Callies, Brandy T. Kuebel Cervantes, Mariona Claret, Brian Concannon, Jeffrey Early, Raffaele Ferrari, Louis Goodman, Ramsey R. Harcourt, Jody M. Klymak, Craig M. Lee, M.-Pascale Lelong, Murray D. Levine, Ren-Chieh Lien, Amala Mahadevan, James C. McWilliams, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Sonaljit Mukherjee, Jonathan D. Nash, Tamay Özgökmen, Stephen D. Pierce, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Roger M. Samelson, Thomas B. Sanford, R. Kipp Shearman, Eric D. Skyllingstad, K. Shafer Smith, Amit Tandon, John R. Taylor, Eugene A. Terray, Leif N. Thomas, and James R. Ledwell

therefore enhances overall variance of tracer gradients. Molecular diffusion then acts to reduce small-scale gradients and effects the ultimate mixing ( Eckart 1948 ; Garrett 2006 ). In practice, all small-scale processes not resolved in a particular numerical or analytic framework (e.g., Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) are often lumped into mixing with the understanding that it may include unresolved stirring as well. Within the strongly stratified ocean interior, a clear distinction can be

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Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Miles A. Sundermeyer, and M.-Pascale Lelong

ν / τ also depends on the characteristics of the vortices such as Δ N 2 / N 2 , the net diapycnal diffusivity induced by mixing events κ z , and the background viscosity ν . Specifically, they found T ν / τ ∝ 3( N 2 /Δ N 2 )( κ z / ν ) ≥ (0.01 − 0.10). The effects of some of these parameters on the onset of upscale energy transfer were evaluated and discussed in sections 3e and 4 . Other possible factors that likely influence the energy transfer and interaction between the vortical mode

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