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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Russ. S. Schumacher, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

upscale toward the east ( Rasmussen and Houze 2011 , 2016 ; Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). This “back-building” phenomenon leads to persistent convection and is unique to subtropical South America ( Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). Previous studies describe the relative depth and role of the SALLJ in convective initiation and contribution to regional rainfall ( Marengo et al. 2002 , 2004 ; Salio et al. 2002 , 2007 ; Nascimento et al. 2016 ), but use LLJ identification criteria originally designed for North

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

-time, 48-h CAM forecasts were generated by three participating institutions, using regional configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (e.g., Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Additionally, a 96-h forecast was generated using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) ( Skamarock et al. 2012 ), in a 15–3 km configuration, such that the computational mesh for the entirety of the South American continent had 3-km gridpoint spacing. It is noteworthy that the simulated reflectivity

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

area where convective initiation, upscale growth, and development of severe weather can occur in rapid succession, enabling a natural laboratory for studying multiple stages of convective evolution without needing to cover the large distances often required in, for example, the U.S. central plains. Fig . 1. Map of the RELAMPAGO LMA. Station names are listed next to their positions. The inset shows the regional context for the network. To study the above phenomena, two coordinated international

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Russ S. Schumacher, Deanna A. Hence, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Martin Rugna, Adam C. Varble, and Nathan R. Kelly

subtropical South America is the South American low-level jet (e.g., Vera et al. 2006 ; Salio et al. 2007 ; Montini et al. 2019 ). During RELAMPAGO, a sounding site at Villa de María del Río Seco (hereinafter Villa de María), located approximately 175 km north of Córdoba ( Fig. 1a ), collected daily soundings at 0900 UTC, along with other times during IOPs, to monitor the SALLJ and its potential effects on convection. The objective criteria for identifying low-level jets first introduced by Bonner

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

environments; 2) characterize thermodynamic and microphysical properties of clouds and precipitation, convective outflow, lightning, and hail events; and 3) observe hydrometeorological interactions with convective systems ( Nesbitt 2016 ). The occurrence of convective events in this region is linked to the strengthening of topographically guided South American low-level jet (SALLJ), which brings moist air poleward, and strong convection is formed at the exit region controlled primarily by diabatic effects

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

regions of the world ( Schaefer 1986 ) like India ( Weston 1972 ; Akter and Tsuboki 2017 ), eastern China ( Golden 1980 ; Qin and Chen 2017 ), central West Africa ( Hamilton et al. 1945 ), Australia ( Arnup and Reeder 2007 ), and Canada ( Taylor et al. 2011 ). In each of these regions, drylines have their own characteristics and development mechanisms, which are strongly linked to local orography and regional synoptic climatology. Dryline climatologies (i.e., the study of their frequency, spatial

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