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Husayn El Sharif, Jingfeng Wang, and Aris P. Georgakakos

regional scales with reduced dependency on costly and uncertain in situ field experiments. Precision agriculture has been largely focused on maximizing field and regional crop yields and associated economic benefits. The tools involved in precision agriculture may also guide regional water resources management, as more accurate modeling and forecasting of water demand for crop production would lead to a more efficient allocation of limited water supplies. Careful monitoring and provision of water

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Marco L. Carrera, Stéphane Bélair, and Bernard Bilodeau

surface synoptic reports (SYNOP) network, the aviation routine weather report (METAR), and the U.S. Standard Hydrometeorological Exchange Format (SHEF) surface observing network, along with various regional precipitation networks. c. Geophysical land surface characteristics Accurate specifications of the land surface characteristics such as topography, vegetation fraction, land-cover type, soil texture, and canopy density are important to provide an accurate model first guess. At EC’s MRD

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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

is displayed as a radial distance and R is displayed as an angle in the polar plot. In situ measurements are represented by a point located on the x axis at R = 1 and SDV = 1; the distance to this point represents E . Usually, soil moisture time series show a strong seasonal pattern that could artificially increase the perceived agreement between satellite and in situ observations in terms of R . Therefore, to avoid seasonal effects, time series of anomalies from a moving monthly average

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