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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

from the HERB dataset are summarized in section 4 , with the goal of establishing baseline TOA, SFC, and ATM radiation budgets and their spatial distribution across the TRMM domain. Particular emphasis is given to relating spatial gradients in energy balance to observed regional variability in the radiative impact of clouds. The effects of clouds on atmospheric radiative heating are further explored by adding a vertical dimension to the results in section 5 . The 10-yr mean spatial distribution

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

between layer-integrated heating and net vertical precipitation flux in each observation column, only a scaling of a composite model heating profile by the precipitation flux is performed to allow for the effects of horizontal advection between convective and stratiform regions. These horizontal advection effects are represented, at least implicitly, by the cloud-resolving model simulations. In the present study, the application of the steady-state precipitation principle follows the work of SH04

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

effects of mesoscale convective systems ( Chen and Houze 1997 ). Over land, daytime heating exerts the primary control on the diurnal cycle of precipitation; however, factors influencing the development and organization of convection—surface fluxes, surface heterogeneity, low-level jets, orography, convective downdrafts, etc.—are varied and complex, complicating its treatment in models ( Betts and Jakob 2002 ; Bechtold et al. 2004 : Khairoutdinov and Randall 2006 ). Observations prior to NAME have

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

presence of precipitation. In other words, the diabatic heating associated with precipitation is equal to the total diabatic heating if the precipitation is greater than zero and is zero otherwise. This is because the heating profiles in the TRMM products are available only in regions with precipitation (and hence dominantly latent heating); this conditioning would eliminate the effects of diabatic heating in grid points where precipitation is absent (where sensible heat fluxes and radiative cooling

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

these two profiles may be attributed to the regional predominance of different cloud-top heights. More mature and well-developed systems (i.e., those with convective cells and well-developed stratiform precipitation aloft) are usually located over the EIO region ( Haynes and Stephens 2007 ; Zuidema and Mapes 2008 ). In general, a profile shape is the combination of the two levels of heating. The lower level is associated with convective latent heat release and the higher level with stratiform LH (e

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

infrared radiation and has been used to study cloud–radiation interactions ( Tao et al. 1996 , 2003a ). Subgrid-scale (turbulent) processes in the model are parameterized using a scheme based on Klemp and Wilhelmson (1978) . The effects of both dry and moist processes on the generation of subgrid-scale kinetic energy have been incorporated ( Soong and Ogura 1980 ). The sedimentation of cloud ice ( Starr and Cox 1985 ) is included to better model clouds in the upper troposphere. All scalar variables

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

the reference pressure (1000 mb), C p the specific heat of dry air at constant pressure, and R the gas constant for dry air. The overbars denote horizontal averages. The Q 1 can be directly related to the contributions of cloud effects, which can be explicitly estimated by CRMs, by The primes indicate deviations from the horizontal averages; ρ is the air density and Q R the cooling/heating rate associated with radiative processes. The subgrid-scale (smaller than the cloud scale

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

products, net radiative heating rate ( Q R ) from the hydrologic cycle and earth’s radiation budget (HERB) algorithm (hereafter TRMM Q R ; see L’Ecuyer and Stephens 2003 , 2007 ; L’Ecuyer and McGarragh 2009 ) is used to obtain an equivalent Q 1 by adding TRMM Q R to both TRMM/TRAIN Q 1 − Q R and TRMM/CSH Q 1 . In the case of TRMM/TRAIN, adding Q R results in a direct estimate of Q 1 . In the case of TRMM/CSH, since the radiative effects over precipitating regions have been considered

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