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R. E. Carbone and J. D. Tuttle

central Appalachians, together with ∼1 cm s −1 descent in the Illinois–Indiana region (not shown). Anomaly winds are inconsistent with the notion of a solenoid circulation in this region; however, regional mass compensation is suggested. Surprisingly, any direct effects of the Great Lakes themselves are not especially prominent or evident in the average RUC analysis ( Fig. 9 ). Other nocturnal maxima of note include rainfall over the coastal Atlantic and the GoM, and rainfall resulting from the

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

incomplete and inconsistent rain gauge and radar datasets that upheld a global view of the process and had never allowed regional and global model renditions of diurnal precipitation variability to be reliably checked, much less verified. This situation changed in July 1987, which marked the date of the advent of regularly flown passive microwave (PMW) radiometers on earth-orbiting satellites, namely, the launch of the first (F8) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) on a Defense Meteorological

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

single one of which can explain the entire process or, in general, an entire process. Instead, a mixture of two or more mechanisms (modes) are generally at work over regional and smaller scales, combining together to produce the averaged process at larger scales. Thus, the trick in understanding diurnal rainfall variability is to understand the contexts and modal components producing the averaged effects (that quite often become blurred through the imposed averaging), and then diagnosing the

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Munehisa K. Yamamoto, Fumie A. Furuzawa, Atsushi Higuchi, and Kenji Nakamura

Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), etc.]. Relationships between clouds and precipitation and regional differences of diurnal variations using directly observed data are not fully understood. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite can study the diurnal cycle globally because of its non-sun-synchronous orbit (e.g., Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Bowman et al. 2005 ; Collier and Bowman 2004 ). The Precipitation Radar (PR) uniquely and directly

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J. Li, S. Sorooshian, W. Higgins, X. Gao, B. Imam, and K. Hsu

continental and regional scales (see the reviews of Douglas et al. 1993 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ; Barlow et al. 1998 ), with renewed interest during the recent North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) 2004 field campaign ( Higgins and Gochis 2007 ). Because of the limitations in the observation network ( Gochis et al. 2004 ) and in the capabilities of model physical parameterizations, many aspects of the NAM remain poorly understood, including the variability of local

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Donald Wylie

deficits at 1400 LT also appear in northern Canada, eastern Europe, and the east Asian coast. The largest depiction of diurnal cycles is the cloud-cover deficits over the eastern tropical oceans mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, which is the austral summer season. A large diurnal cycle also appears in the eastern Indian Ocean next to the coast of Australia. 3. The affect of zonal averaging The diurnal cycles of cloud cover appear in zonal averages although their magnitude is tempered from the regional

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

2002 ). A number of studies using regional observations (e.g., Schwartz and Bosart 1979 ; Oki and Musiake 1994 ; Anderson et al. 1996 ; Sui et al. 1998 ; Chen et al. 1999 ; Dai 2001 ) have reported a secondary LE–EM peak in the continental diurnal precipitation cycle. The main possible explanations for this mode, which have been reviewed by Yang and Smith (2006) , consist of the “mobile terrain-forced precipitating system” (MTFPS) mechanism and a continentally based NRC–ERH mechanism. There

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

regional studies of the diurnal cycle over the United States (e.g., Wallace 1975 ; Dai et al. 1999 ), the coastal and island regions in Asia (e.g., Oki and Musiake, 1994 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ), tropical Americas ( Kousky 1980 ), and West Africa ( Shinoda et al. 1999 ; Pinker et al. 2006 ). Partly because of a lack of high-resolution data, precipitation frequency, intensity, and their diurnal variations over China have not been well documented. Previous studies of diurnal variations of

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

07b by analyzing the variance of balanced water cycle components; isolating unique water cycle mechanisms in many regions of the globe. The results may be used to diagnose model biases or to isolate the underlying water cycle behaviors that cause diverse regional hydroclimates. Section 2 introduces the reanalysis modeling system and methodologies employed in this study, including a comparison between model spinup and natural precipitable water tendency. Section 3 describes the variance of

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