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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

in turn influence the regional monsoon ( Koseki et al. 2013 ; Wu and Chen 2015 ; Wu 2016 ). A key feature of the SCS winter SST pattern is an elongated cool SST pool extending from southern China to the Vietnam coast and to peninsular Malaysia. This is known as the “cold tongue” (CT) ( Liu et al. 2004 ; Varikoden et al. 2010 ; Koseki et al. 2013 ; Thompson et al. 2016 ). Climatologically, from November to February, the SCS winter monsoon results in latent heat loss and southward advection of

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

variability of the NESC gets larger while propagating westward. The effects of the eastern boundary reflection are confined east of 115°W and do not propagate far away from the eastern boundary evidently, probably due to the strong mixing in the eastern basin associated with the active tropical instability waves (TIWs) and strong vertical shear. The variability is the largest in the central-western equatorial Pacific, the dynamics of which are investigated in the next section using a vertically

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

Tropical Rainforest: Past, Present and Possible Future . Kluwer Academic, 206 pp. 10.1007/978-94-017-1800-4 Malyshev , S. , E. Shevliakova , R. J. Stouffer , and S. W. Pacala , 2015 : Contrasting local versus regional effects of land-use-change-induced heterogeneity on historical climate: Analysis with the GFDL Earth System Model . J. Climate , 28 , 5448 – 5469 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00586.1 Manoli , G. , A. Meijide , N. Huth , A. Knohl

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

large-scale processes such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1994 ) play important roles in the intraseasonal variability over the MC ( Ichikawa and Yasunari 2007 ; Rauniyar and Walsh 2011 ; Kanamori et al. 2013 ). The atmospheric water cycle also shows significant regional variations at seasonal, intraseasonal, and diurnal time scales ( Ruane and Roads 2008 ). Diurnal convection and precipitation cycles are controlled by thermal contrasts between land and ocean surfaces

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

systems in the tropics can be of comparable magnitude to convective available potential energy ( Moncrieff 2010 ). Such upscale effects of organized convection on the distribution of tropical precipitation and the intensity and multiscale structure of the MJO has been demonstrated by parameterizations of mesoscale convective systems implemented within both simple and complex climate models ( Moncrieff et al. 2017 ; Yang et al. 2019 ). It is therefore apparent that mesoscale convective organization is

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

event ( Figs. 1a–d ), which corresponds to the findings of He et al. (2011) and Seo et al. (2016) . The maximum of regional mean cold anomalies over eastern China (20°–40°N, 100°–120°E) appeared about one week after the maximum of regional mean negative OLR anomalies over the Maritime Continent (15°S–15°N, 110°–160°E) ( Fig. 2a ). The warm anomalies occurred over eastern China from 15 December to 24 December 1996, which appeared as a southward extension of the main body of warm anomalies over the

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Andung Bayu Sekaranom and Hirohiko Masunaga

top and the surface ( Furuzawa and Nakamura 2005 ). A comparison study with ground radar data conducted by Zagrodnik and Jiang (2013) showed that TMI has a significant overestimation with respect to ice particles. Very high rain rates are often estimated by TMI at low brightness temperatures, particularly below 220 K, while PR shows a less significant relationship between rain-rate and ice-scattering signals. In addition to the global comparison, a large number of regional comparison and

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) plays an important role as a heat and moisture source that can impact global circulation and modulate planetary-scale variability ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). However, despite its importance, large errors are commonly found in the MC region in global and regional climate and weather models (e.g., Gianotti et al. 2012 ; Holloway et al. 2012 ; Nguyen et al. 2015 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2012 ; and others). One likely source of these errors arises from the

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

. The melting and thawing of sea ice were approximately accounted for. Not properly dealt with were the changes in runoff from land, although the 12-month running mean removes most of those effects. For the Pacific, we integrated southward from the Bering Strait, where through transports are small enough to be neglected, but could be considered. However, the Indian and Pacific Oceans were combined because of their connection through the Indonesian region, called the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

al. 2013 ; Moum et al. 2014 ), and Ocean Mixing and Monsoon/Air–Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean Regional Initiative (OMM-ASIRI; Wijesekera et al. 2016 ), mostly focused on the equatorial central Indian Ocean. Both observation and model studies show that the increase of daily mean SST can enhance the latent and sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere, providing important feedbacks to the evolution of the MJO ( Seo et al. 2014 ; Moum et al. 2014 ). Regional oceanography and

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