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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

( Stammer 1997 ; Scharffenberg and Stammer 2011 ; Arbic et al. 2014 ; Khatri et al. 2018 ). But, it should be kept in mind that gridded currents (even above 100 km) suffer from noise, interpolation and smoothing, and in general, gridded spectra tend to be steeper than those from raw satellite track data ( Arbic et al. 2013 ; Khatri et al. 2018 ; Wortham and Wunsch 2014 ; Xu and Fu 2012 ). As with in situ data, spectral exponents estimated from altimetry show regional dependency ( Xu and Fu 2012

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

systems in the tropics can be of comparable magnitude to convective available potential energy ( Moncrieff 2010 ). Such upscale effects of organized convection on the distribution of tropical precipitation and the intensity and multiscale structure of the MJO has been demonstrated by parameterizations of mesoscale convective systems implemented within both simple and complex climate models ( Moncrieff et al. 2017 ; Yang et al. 2019 ). It is therefore apparent that mesoscale convective organization is

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

examination of the effects of topography on the DCP within ISO events useful. Daytime elevated heating along topography can induce upslope mountain–valley breezes (e.g., Houze 2012 ; Kirshbaum et al. 2018 ) that may work in concert with land–sea breezes to enhance DC circulations along mountainous coastal regions (e.g., Qian 2008 ). When Qian (2008) flattened the topography in their regional-climate model simulations of 30 years of December–February convection over Java, the strength of the Java land

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

1. Introduction Regional monsoons affect the precipitation and atmospheric circulation where over two-thirds of the world’s population resides ( Zhou et al. 2016 ). Future climate projection of the regional monsoon variability is therefore potentially of great societal concern. However, the state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) encounter great challenges when simulating the monsoon systems, including their evolution and variability (e.g., Annamalai et al. 2007 , 2017 ; Cook et al

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

, Z = e − iω Δ T , ω is the frequency, Δ T is the sampling interval, and a , b 1 , and b 2 are constants that determine the sharpness of the filter. A recursive filter is optimal to avoid edge effects associated with phase shifts ( Zhao et al. 2017 ). Murakami (1979) applied this type of recursive filter to 4–5-day convective oscillations and lauded the ability of the filter to temporally detect anomalous peaks in a time series. Krishnamurti et al. (2017) applied this type of filter

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

rainfall events in the tropical western Pacific Ocean initiated in close proximity to mesoscale SST gradients. The onset of rainfall preferentially occurred adjacent to local warm patches, in close proximity to minima of the negative Laplacian of SST. Using formulas derived to estimate the magnitude of convergence induced by the SST field, the forcing by mesoscale SST gradients was an order of magnitude larger than the environmental background convergence, thus driving the regional excitation of

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

generated by massive seasonal freshwater fluxes, mainly from major rivers in the north, and intense precipitation during the southwest monsoon. The shallow freshwater cap affects the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST; Jaeger and Mahadevan 2018 ) and the upper-ocean’s heat content ( Shroyer et al. 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016 ), both of which can alter the air–sea fluxes and, hence, affect the monsoon dynamics. The Air–Sea Interaction Regional Initiative (ASIRI; Lucas et al. 2014

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

scale interactions between the KWs and the diurnal cycle (DC) over the major islands. For those KWs that arrive in phase with the local DC, the KW-associated precipitation is enhanced by 3 times and the chance of successful KWs traversing the MC is 40% higher, when compared to the KWs that arrive at other times of the day. While the results of Baranowski et al. (2016b) emphasize more the effects of the local DC over the islands on the passing KW, the modulation of the local DC by the KW, which is

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

relevant parameters and nondimensional numbers. With the help of the IMD reports and the observations from mooring BD10, we reconstruct these parameters and numbers for Cyclone Phailin ( Table 1 ). In this study, we estimate the nondimensional storm speed , defined as where is the local Coriolis frequency, is the translation speed of the storm, and is the radius of maximum wind. If the value of is O (1), the storm has resonant and asymmetric effects on the ocean on either side of the track

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

to molecular diffusion [Eq. (2) ]. We do so following Gregg et al. (2012) with the understanding that setting χ to any nonzero value during such periods seems unjustifiable. b. The 2014–15 Bay of Bengal deployment As part of the U.S. Office of Naval Research’s Air Sea Interaction Regional Initiative (ASIRI) and the Naval Research Laboratory’s (NRL) Effects of Bay of Bengal Freshwater Flux on Indian Ocean Monsoon (EBoB) programs a number of moored mixing meters ( χ pods; Moum and Nash 2009

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