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J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, and Seungwon Lee

climate. In particular, clouds can exert a strong influence on these radiative structures in regional radiative balance by reflecting shortwave (SW) radiation back to space and trapping longwave (LW) radiation and radiating it back to the surface, providing one of the strongest feedbacks in the climate system. The balance of these fluxes is essential for understanding Earth’s climate system and constraining the energy balance for climate models ( Stephens 2005 ). Global constraints and information for

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. The achievement of these programmatic objectives should lead to the improvement of the treatment of atmospheric radiation in climate models, explicitly recognizing the crucial role of clouds in influencing this radiation and the consequent need for accurate description of the presence and properties of clouds in climate models. There are key scientific issues that must be resolved in order to achieve these objectives. The primary scientific questions are as follows: What are the direct effects of

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global climate change. Objective To understand energy’s role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on general circulation models. A major goal of the department is to foster the development of general circulation models capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. DOE research has revealed that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the

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Steven Ghan and Joyce E. Penner

. Chem. Phys. , 10 , 3235 – 3246 , doi: 10.5194/acp-10-3235-2010 . McCaa , J. R. , and C. S. Bretherton , 2004 : A new parameterization for shallow cumulus convection and its application to marine subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers. Part II: Regional simulations of marine boundary layer clouds . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 883 – 896 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0883:ANPFSC>2.0.CO;2 . Menon , S. , and L. Rotstayn , 2006 : The radiative influence of aerosol effects on liquid

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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

measurements were made during the DOE Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS; Berg et al. 2009 ). 3. Improving our understanding of the land surface and its impact on weather and climate a. Local- and regional-scale fluxes Scaling point measurements of the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes up to larger spatial/temporal scales has remained an important challenge in climate science (e.g., Sellers et al. 1995 ). The issue can be divided into two aspects

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

considerable interest in local temperature and winds near both small (e.g., Lake Mendota, Wisconsin; Bartlett 1905 ; Wing 1943 ) and large lakes. Of particular note is work of Day (1926) , who developed one of the first regional investigations of the effects of large lakes on precipitation through compilation of climate data for every station in the region near Lake Michigan. A few years later, Odell (1931) sought to examine the influence of Lake Michigan on a wider range of climatic variables, driven

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

challenging because of counteracting effects—increased NO x emissions not only increase tropospheric ozone, but also increase OH concentration. The former produces a short-lived regional positive forcing while the latter lowers methane abundance (with a consequent decrease in ozone), which produces a longer-lived global negative forcing. This longer-lived global forcing partially offsets the short-lived regional ozone forcing ( Ramaswamy et al. 2001 , and references therein). Studies showed that the

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

). The latter study examined several different radiative transfer models and found significant effects on the calculated diffuse flux from the assumptions used to treat the spectral dependence of AOD and surface albedo in the radiative transfer models. Using new observations of wavelength-dependent AOD and surface albedo, they were able to achieve agreement to within 1.9% of measured diffuse fluxes and concluded that overestimates of diffuse fluxes in previous studies were due primarily to details of

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): Goals, platforms, and field operations . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 11 , 627 – 654 , doi: 10.5194/acp-11-627-2011 . Xie , S. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Clouds and more: ARM climate modeling best estimate data . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 91 , 13 – 20 , doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1 . Xue , H. , G. Feingold , and B. Stevens , 2008 : Aerosol effects on clouds, precipitation, and the organization of shallow cumulus convection . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 392 – 406

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

) to show their similarity. Later diagnostics developed at UCLA would emphasize the difference between Q 1 and Q 2 as a measure of convective activity and radiative effects. Fig . 3. (left) Notes on Q 1 and Q 2 and (right) hand-drawn contour plots for Typhoon Doris (1958). In 1959, another typhoon would have a great impact on Yanai’s life. High tides and the storm surge from the Ise-wan Taifu (Typhoon Vera) caused 5000 deaths along the coast of Ise-wan (bay) near Nagoya. The cabinet member in

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