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Soon-Hwan Lee and Hae-Dong Kim

occur not only in coastal areas but also in inland basins in east Asia, especially in China, Japan, and Korea. However, regional circulation in an inland basin tends to be complicated because the effects of topographic and urban heat islands function simultaneously. The importance of topographic effects on local circulation has been demonstrated in previous studies ( Kimura and Arakawa 1983 ; Kondo et al. 1989 ; Kuwagata et al. 1990 ; Daul and Pielke 1993 ; Kimura and Kuwagata 1993 ; Lee and

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Ting Meng, Richard Carew, Wojciech J. Florkowski, and Anna M. Klepacka

-moment models using cumulative and intrasectional climate variables, respectively. Another test undertaken was to determine if the panel data have fixed or random regional effects. The Sargan–Hansen statistics test ( Table 5 ) rejects the null hypothesis that the coefficients from the random effects are consistent with the coefficients from the fixed effects model. The test result indicates the existence of fixed effects that were used in the estimation of the mean function. We tested for heteroscedasticity

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Federico Cassola, Massimiliano Burlando, Marta Antonelli, and Corrado F. Ratto

, Europe still remains the market leader with 48 545 MW of installed capacity, representing 65% of the global total. From a technical point of view, at present, wind energy is often conveniently integrated into regional electricity supply systems, but its intermittent character is not without consequences for many power systems yet. In contrast to conventional power generation, where energy input can be scheduled and regulated to be consistent with the national power supply system (PSS), wind energy is

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Jiazheng Lu, Li Li, Xunjian Xu, and Tao Feng

at meteorological observation stations, and there is still no reliable icing sensor than can work effectively under all expected climatic conditions ( Fikke 2009 ; Hosek et al. 2011 ). A complete, precise, and credible historical dataset is urgently needed for the study of icing events and icing climate research. The State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC; see Table 1 for expansions of key acronyms used in this paper) is responsible for the operation and maintenance of 26 provincial regional

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Pedro A. Jiménez, J. Fidel González-Rouco, Elena García-Bustamante, Jorge Navarro, Juan P. Montávez, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jimy Dudhia, and Antonio Muñoz-Roldan

representativeness errors and subsequently compare local versus regional evaluations. The regional series are obtained by averaging the wind at the sites within each region identified by JEA08 . The use of average regional series damps local effects in the observations as well as random representativeness errors in the simulation; thus, it provides a first framework to evaluate the numerical simulation performance. Wavelet analysis ( Foufoula-Georgiou and Kumar 1995 ; Torrence and Compo 1998 ) is used to

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Hanna Hueging, Rabea Haas, Kai Born, Daniela Jacob, and Joaquim G. Pinto

et al. (2008) analyzed WED changes in the Mediterranean region using the regional climate model (RCM) PRECIS driven by HadCM3 (see Table 1 for a list of climate models). They found a decrease of mean WED, except for the Aegean, where an increase is projected. Pryor et al. (2012a) pointed out that marked differences may exist between RCM runs with the same large-scale GCM forcing, and that internal variability and initial conditions may also have a strong impact on the results. A possible

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Simon O. Krichak, Joseph S. Breitgand, and Steven B. Feldstein

model with T62 horizontal resolution. The precipitation data are obtained from the model runs. Note here that, although the application of gridded reanalysis-based data for climate evaluations over the Euro-Mediterranean region has become a widely accepted strategy, there are significant limitations to the data because of important changes in the global observation system during the twentieth century, as well as global warming–associated regional trends in temperature, water vapor content, kinetic

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Xiaoqin Jing, Bart Geerts, Yonggang Wang, and Changhai Liu

1. Introduction Wintertime orographic precipitation is important to the hydrological cycle and the main source of water in the interior western United States (IWUS), a relatively arid region ( Roe 2005 ; Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). High-resolution regional climate models appear to be able to capture cold-season orographic precipitation in this region quite well ( Ikeda et al. 2010 ; Rasmussen et al. 2011 ), in fact better than the typically sparse network of gauges or gauge-based gridded

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Kremena Darmenova, Duane Apling, Glenn Higgins, Philip Hayes, and Heather Kiley

’s advantages relative to other downscaling methods (i.e., spatial disaggregation or statistical downscaling) include resolving atmospheric processes on a finer scale (e.g., orographic effects in mountainous areas) and producing an output that is based on physical modeling of the related processes. Dynamical downscaling is computationally expensive, however, and regional climate model (RCM) simulations are usually performed for relatively short periods from a climatological perspective (i.e., 10–30 yr). The

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T. J. Shepherd, R. J. Barthelmie, and S. C. Pryor

. 2018b ). Thus, while some of the intra- and interannual variability in statewide net CF reported herein may reflect errors/omissions in the EIA-923 reports, variability of the wind climate provides an additional important caveat to comparison of modeled gross CF for the climate of 2008 and net CF for 2014–16 computed as described above. The effects of WT arrays on electrical power output (expressed as CF) and atmospheric conditions at the local to regional scale are quantified using pairwise (in

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