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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

with land-cover conditions such as snow on the ground. In light of the outstanding problems around fog prediction and their association with inaccurate near-surface atmospheric conditions as well as the previous results from the MATERHORN-Fog program, it is our purpose to examine the effects of land surface parameters, especially albedo and snow depth, on the prediction of near-surface atmospheric conditions. In this study, a series of numerical simulations are conducted to elaborate the

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

1. Introduction The variability of regional land surface characteristics in mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models has a potentially strong influence on near-surface forecasts. Some sources of land surface variability, such as coastlines and topographic features, are easily represented in NWP models, but other more subtle land surface characteristics (e.g., albedo, emissivity, roughness length, soil porosity, soil texture, and soil moisture) are more difficult to specify and

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

-start initial conditions ( Fig. 2 ). The initial 6 h of each simulation is excluded from the study to reduce the influence of model spinup of the atmosphere. The large 1.3-km domain allows us to cover the entire playa and to use a broader range of regional surface observations for model validation. We generate a nine-member ensemble for each of the three cases on the basis of three different parameterizations of soil thermal conductivity and three different top-layer (5 cm) soil-moisture initial analyses in

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Matthew E. Jeglum, Sebastian W. Hoch, Derek D. Jensen, Reneta Dimitrova, and Zachariah Silver

occurs 4–5 h after sunset and the cessation of the flow lags sunrise by a similar amount of time. Local horizontal thermal contrasts due to the playa surface remaining much warmer at night than the east basin ( Rife et al. 2002 ) would be expected to produce an easterly or northeasterly flow in the gap at night. The observed flow in the gap is directly opposed to this. The strong bias toward southwesterly flow under higher static stability may indicate that regional-scale boundary layer heterogeneity

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