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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

, whereas measurements from satellite altimetry suggest an increase of 3.1 mm yr −1 for the same period ( Antonov et al. 2005 ), leaving a residual of 1.5 mm yr −1 to be accounted for by nonthermosteric effects. Assuming a constant or near-constant global mean salinity, halosteric sea level changes are of second order globally, but can be very important regionally because of anomalous freshwater fluxes ( Antonov et al. 2002 ). Interannual to decadal variability of local and global rates of sea level

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

deviations, and the presence of stratification is thought to increase such possibilities ( Ponte 1992 ; Wunsch and Stammer 1997 ). There is little evidence, however, for strong excitation of baroclinic resonances in our solutions, either in the values and spatial structure of σ ζ d in Fig. 4 , which are not that different from the results with single-layer models (e.g., Ponte 1993 ), or in the spectra of Figs. 5 and 6 . Some regional effects may be present but the large enhancements of ζ d

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

annual cycle). To find a consistent reanalysis of the measured sea level rise and its regional distribution, it is insufficient to apply local corrections in temperature or sea surface height or vertical adjustment (heave). Only an optimization of the forcing of the ocean that leads to sustained circulation changes and thus indirectly to sea level changes can be successful. In the present paper the ocean-state estimation technique employed constrains an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) by data

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

indicate intrinsic inaccuracies in the model that may be due to its coarse resolution and/or incomplete physics. These differences include differences in the annual cycle noted above and spatial inhomogeneities. For instance, the altimetric observations show variations in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas that may be related to seiches and other local effects that are not simulated by the model. However, it should be noted that the basin-wide sea level fluctuation cannot be simulated by an isolated regional

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

whether the 40°S ocean warming signal ( Willis et al. 2004 ), and the corresponding ocean circulation changes described here, will continue and intensify or reverse in the coming decades. The decadal South Pacific warming signal has significant regional climate effects, for example in New Zealand air temperature and perhaps rainfall ( Sutton et al. 2005 ). It is plausible that decadal climate variability as described here has effects on fisheries and marine ecosystems. New Zealand’s largest commercial

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

Programme’s (WCRP) Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR; information online at http://www.clivar.org ). Based on observations, Levitus et al. (2001) reported changes in temperature and salinity of hitherto unknown amplitudes not only near the surface but also in the actual abyssal oceans. Cazenave and Nerem (2004) pointed out that the processes contributing regionally and globally to sea level changes are numerous and that our understanding of them is far from being complete

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

-ocean heat content ( Huang et al. 2003 ), water mass origins and pathways in the Pacific ( Fukumori et al. 2004 ), the carbon sequestration efficiency ( Hill et al. 2004 ) in ocean models, optimal observing system design ( Köhl and Stammer 2004 ), the sensitivity of ocean biological productivity to iron fluxes ( Dutkiewicz et al. 2006 ), and the impact of open boundary conditions in a regional North Atlantic circulation ( Ayoub 2006 ). Other groups have developed adjoint components of their OGCMs as well

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

transport/flux and, hence, induces a corresponding increase in the compensating eddy heat transport/flux. An increased understanding of the eddy dynamics is therefore important for the effective parameterization of these subgrid-scale effects in low-resolution coupled climate models, which currently may misrepresent important ocean processes ( Willebrand and Haidvogel 2001 ). There is a scarcity of literature on the transport of freshwater by eddies, but results from McCann et al. (1994) and Stammer

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

effects of the vertical structure of atmospheric mass on the time-variable geoid. J. Geophys. Res. , 107 . 2194, doi:10.1029/2001JB000515 . Swenson , S. , and J. Wahr , 2002b : Methods for inferring regional surface-mass anomalies from satellite measurements of time variable gravity. J. Geophys. Res. , 107 . 2193, doi:10.1029/2001JB000576 . Swenson , S. , and J. Wahr , 2006 : Post-processing removal of correlated errors in GRACE data. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 . L08402, doi:10

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Reiner Schlitzer

1. Introduction The formation of dense waters at high latitudes and the subsequent sinking and spreading of the water in the abyssal ocean are integral parts of the global ocean’s overturning circulation. This overturning circulation has profound effects on the heat budget of the earth and impacts the regional and global climate. Apart from heat, the sinking waters also carry dissolved constituents, such as oxygen, nutrients, and CO 2 , and the strength of the overturning circulation ultimately

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