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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. Since ICID-I, increasing attention has been paid to how a changing climate may affect the frequency and intensity of drought. In a globally warmed world, the warming can intensify hydrological droughts and alter runoff timing from snowmelt, affecting water management decisions ( Barnett et al. 2008 ; Cayan et al. 2010 ), and drought

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Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo

1. Introduction Drought is among the most complex climatic phenomena affecting society and the environment ( Wilhite 1993 ). The root of this complexity is related to the difficulty of quantifying drought severity since we identify a drought by its effects or impacts on different types of systems (agriculture, water resources, ecology, forestry, economy, etc.), but there is not a physical variable we can measure to quantify droughts. Thus, droughts are difficult to pinpoint in time and space

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Daniel J. McEvoy, Justin L. Huntington, John T. Abatzoglou, and Laura M. Edwards

its effects on drought. Vicente-Serrano et al. ( Vicente-Serrano et al. 2010 ) demonstrated that the SPEI (using T -based PET) was able to better characterize recent drought over SPI in the arid regions that experienced significant warming over the last century. However, little research has been conducted directly comparing the performance of the SPI against the SPEI, particularly as it relates to hydrologic metrics of drought in arid regions of the United States. Most of the municipal water

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Di Long, Bridget R. Scanlon, D. Nelun Fernando, Lei Meng, and Steven M. Quiring

(SHP) ( F statistic, p = 0.28 CHP and p = 0.78 SHP). However, there is a significant decreasing trend across the NHP at −1 day decade −1 and the anomaly decreasing at −3% decade −1 ( Figure 4 ). The spatial mean of CWD over all subregions of the HP does not show any significant decreasing trend for the study period. CDD and CWD are not closely correlated, which means that a higher CDD value does not mean a lower value of CWD. CDD can be indicative of effects on vegetation and ecosystems, and

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Kingtse C. Mo, Lindsey N. Long, and Jae-Kyung E. Schemm

variance. Therefore, the HadCM3 captures the pattern of the FOC, but the magnitudes are weak. The T382 CFS has errors, but it captures the mean rainfall anomalies associated with ENSO, although the magnitudes of anomalies are weak. The high-resolution T382 CFS has the possibility to resolve terrain-related features and capture regional responses. 6. Conclusions and discussions In this paper, we examine the extreme persistent events of rainfall simulated by seven atmosphere–land–ocean coupled models

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