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Seiji Kato, Norman G. Loeb, John T. Fasullo, Kevin E. Trenberth, Peter H. Lauritzen, Fred G. Rose, David A. Rutan, and Masaki Satoh

rate (e.g., Held et al. 2019 ) because of, in part, the existence of a significant energy balance residual when satellite energy flux products are integrated. While the total energy is conserved, energy is converted and transferred in various different forms in the atmosphere. Although the regional energy balance in the atmosphere is largely achieved with diabatic heating by precipitation, radiative cooling, and dry static energy divergence by dynamics ( Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a ; Kato et al

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Yun Hang, Alexander V. Matus, and Zhien Wang

structure of LW CRE ( C LW ) between the surface and the TOA that demonstrate that clouds exert significant zonal variations in atmospheric heating. Thus SW absorption controls global mean cloud atmospheric heating while strong regional gradients in the strength of cloud LW emission govern its spatial distribution. 3. Radiative effects of cloud types Figure 4 shows the global distribution of annual mean cloud fraction from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations, which corresponds to the CRE estimates in

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Christopher M. Thomas, Bo Dong, and Keith Haines

( Tapley et al. 2004 ; Chambers and Bonin 2012 ; Johnson and Chambers 2013 ). Large imbalances have been shown to exist when independent energy flux observations are combined at both global and regional scales (e.g., Josey et al. 1999 ); the net vertical fluxes are inconsistent with any realistic storage or horizontal transports, limiting the value of such observations for constraining climate models ( Wild et al. 2015 ). Attempts to reconcile these imbalances have had rather limited impact (e

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Elodie Charles, Benoit Meyssignac, and Aurélien Ribes

of GHG from the effect of other anthropogenic forcing due to a degeneracy between the global signals induced by GHG emissions and anthropogenic aerosols. They found that aerosols and GHGs have opposite and anticorrelated effects on OHC that mirror each other in the global mean [aerosols cool the system whereas GHGs warm it; see, e.g., Fig. 3c in Slangen et al. (2014) ]. They concluded that the use of extra spatiotemporal information is necessary to remove effectively the degeneracy and

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Yongxin Zhang, John T. Fasullo, and Lijing Cheng

a match between TOA radiation and OHC tendencies on a monthly basis, but globally the mismatch is strongly constrained to be less than about 0.2 W m −2 [see Trenberth et al. (2014) for an estimate both from observations and a climate model]. But the TOA radiation once calibrated plus the atmospheric reanalyses and OHC then provide the best information on the variability of the EEI and its regional manifestations. As shown here, it is necessary to adjust the OHC tendencies to match the EEI

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Norman G. Loeb, Hailan Wang, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, William L. Smith Jr, and Sunny Sun-Mack

2012 ( Fig. 7d ), the total net downward SW surface flux anomaly peaks in 2011. Even though the SFC contribution is largest in 2012, the combined effects of positive SFC and ATM contributions ( Figs. 10a–c ) mean that the total anomaly is larger in 2011 than 2012. MERRA-2 captures this, but underestimates the SFC contribution in 2011 ( Fig. 10c ). ERA-Interim misses it entirely, so that its local maximum in net downward SW surface flux occurs in 2012 instead of 2011. The regional distribution of

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

. The melting and thawing of sea ice were approximately accounted for. Not properly dealt with were the changes in runoff from land, although the 12-month running mean removes most of those effects. For the Pacific, we integrated southward from the Bering Strait, where through transports are small enough to be neglected, but could be considered. However, the Indian and Pacific Oceans were combined because of their connection through the Indonesian region, called the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In

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Seiji Kato and Fred G. Rose

production in the column, as indicated by Eq. (13) , because temperature varies with height. This is different from energy balance described by Eq. (4) and makes somewhat difficult to interpret regional Q e / T e − Q a / T a . We further separate entropy produced by vertical exchange of longwave radiation and by nonradiative processes in Σ ˙ irr . Rewriting longwave terms in the third square bracket in the right side of Eq. (13) separating the entropy produced by net longwave surface and

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Michael Mayer, Steffen Tietsche, Leopold Haimberger, Takamasa Tsubouchi, Johannes Mayer, and Hao Zuo

warming. This is also suggested by results derived from coupled climate models ( Burgard and Notz 2017 ). From the standpoint of energy conservation, long-term mean net radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the convergence of poleward atmospheric and oceanic energy transports into the Arctic must balance the regional heat accumulation. However, previous observational estimates are far from satisfying this requirement. For example, the estimates of mean net energy flux into the Arctic Ocean

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