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Gemma T. Narisma and Andrew J. Pitman

, and that the overall impact of these feedbacks on the biosphere is significant particularly at the regional scale. Incorporating the vegetation response to the changes in CO 2 and climate in LCC experiments may therefore either compound or attenuate the LCC impacts simulated from experiments that do not include biospheric feedbacks depending on the balance of structural and physiological feedbacks. Figure 1 illustrates how the contrasting effects of the physiological and structural response can

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In-Young Yeo, Steven I. Gordon, and Jean-Michel Guldmann

decision variables ( Hopkins, 1974 ). This technique has been widely applied to comprehensive land-use and water resources planning. When applied to land-use planning, optimization has been used to allocate different land-use types/activities to specific locations/zones in order to control and stimulate regional economic activities and to maximize economic benefits at minimal cost (Lundqvist and Mattsson, 1983; Gilbert et al., 1985 ). However, land-use allocation models often overlook the effects of

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

1. Introduction Large rivers integrate the constituents and characteristics of the landscape through which they flow. Consequently, river discharge represents a valuable historical record of hydrologic patterns over complex drainage basins, and therefore has a particularly important role to play in understanding climatic and anthropogenic effects on terrestrial ecosystems at continental and global scales ( Vörösmarty and Sahagian, 2000 ). River flow has important implications for physics in the

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Christopher Small

( Chameides et al., 1994 ). Urban heat island effects are also believed to be responsible for inducing atmospheric convergence sufficient enough to influence thunderstorm formation and movements observed near large urban areas ( Bornstein and LeRoy, 1990 ; Bornstein and Lin, 2000 ). Regional climate models also indicate a strong sensitivity to land-cover variations at scales of kilometers ( Pielke et al., 2002 ; Roy and Avissar, 2000 ; Li and Avissar, 1994 ), which suggests that urban land

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Deborah A. McGrath, Jonathan P. Evans, C. Ken Smith, David G. Haskell, Neil W. Pelkey, Robert R. Gottfried, Charles D. Brockett, Matthew D. Lane, and E. Douglass Williams

( Draper, 1999 ). Despite evidence of increasing harvest and pine conversion rates in this region, the Tennessee Division of Forestry recently reported that the state's forests were improving in condition since the 1950s, largely because of statewide increases in forest cover and growth rates. These observations were based upon a regional U.S. Forest Service Assessment [the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)], which is a valuable tool for examining changes in forest cover on a statewide basis. However

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Jeffrey A. Hicke, David B. Lobell, and Gregory P. Asner

and 4 was likely driven by changes in climate. Recent studies have analyzed the response of crop production to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation ( Izaurralde et al., 1999 ; Phillips et al., 1999 ), and the effects of the 1982/83 event can been seen. In addition, other climate influences can be identified: the 1988 drought and the extensive flooding in the Midwest and Great Plains in 1993. Although we feel that climate was a major driver of variability, other influences such as economic decisions

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