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Tobias Kremer, Elmar Schömer, Christian Euler, and Michael Riemer

. , 65 , 714 – 736 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2488.1 . 10.1175/2007JAS2488.1 De Silva , V. , and J. B. Tenenbaum , 2004 : Sparse multidimensional scaling using landmark points. Tech. Rep., Stanford University, 41 pp . Doms , G. , and M. Schättler , 2002 : A description of the nonhydrostatic regional model LM. Part I: Dynamics and numerics. Deutscher Wetterdienst, 140 pp. , http://www.cosmo-model.org . Doms , G. , and Coauthors , 2011 : A description of the nonhydrostatic

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Mirjam Hirt, Stephan Rasp, Ulrich Blahak, and George C. Craig

convection to determine if the anticipated physical effects are present. Based on these results, a revised version of the PSP scheme will be defined that has the potential to improve forecast skill for convective precipitation. To demonstrate improved skill will require a systematic evaluation of ensemble forecasts over a long test period. This will be the subject of a future study. The PSP scheme ( Kober and Craig 2016 ) aims to better couple subgrid turbulence to convective initiation by reintroducing

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

the forecast errors associated with these changes. For mature TCs that make landfall, on the other hand, many (idealized) studies document the influence of either a flat coastal region or an orographic barrier (e.g., Taiwan) on the track and structural development. When a TC vortex impinges on land, regardless of orography, it has two effects: a reduction of moisture supply and an increase of surface roughness. First, when the inner core is still over the ocean, dry air from land is transported

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Christian Euler, Michael Riemer, Tobias Kremer, and Elmar Schömer

extratropical cyclone . J. Atmos. Sci. , 74 , 1403 – 1416 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0260.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0260.1 Davis , C. A. , S. C. Jones , and M. Riemer , 2008 : Hurricane vortex dynamics during Atlantic extratropical transition . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 714 – 736 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2488.1 . 10.1175/2007JAS2488.1 Doms , G. , and U. Schättler , 2002 : A description of the nonhydrostatic Regional Model LM. Part I: Dynamics and numerics. Consortium for Small

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

convective motions are not excluded in principle. They are, however, indirectly excluded by the coarse resolutions and the long output time intervals that previous studies on WCBs have used. In addition, the convection parameterization scheme required at these resolutions directly introduces latent heat into the sounding based on closure assumptions to represent the effects of nonresolved vertical motions and thus hides them from the resolved flow. Not surprisingly a high sensitivity of the relative

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

forecast uncertainty is the representation of diabatic processes in NWP models. The convective parameterization schemes employed in all global models, and in some regional models, might underrepresent divergent outflow aloft, in part because the divergent outflow is a gridscale response to resolved precipitation processes, as well as parameterized convective heating and moistening ( Zadra et al. 2018 ). This error in the representation of diabatic processes affects the correct simulation of initial

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Jacopo Riboldi, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Heather M. Archambault

of strong PV gradient in ACCEL, indicating that the trough keeps moving eastward, and a much weaker negative PV advection is present downstream, suggesting weaker ridge building ( Fig. 13j ). f. Far-downstream effects: Atmospheric blocking It has been shown that the presence of TC–trough interactions is associated with an increased likelihood over the North Pacific (see section 3a ). However, this response is also strongly modulated by the occurrence of phase locking. A large part of the

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

conservation of mass and circulation within a PV isoline on an isentropic surface. The computation of the MLM results in a stronger background flow than the climatological time average and, hence, stronger PV gradients. If one transcends linear theory and accounts for nonlinear effects, the waves do have an impact on the background state. In practice it may, therefore, be an advantage to use a nonstationary background flow, which implicitly accounts for the feedback of the waves on the waveguide. For

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