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Xia Liu, Mu Mu, and Qiang Wang

path forms, it will persist for a few years to a decade, but the transition between the two types of paths occurs over only a few months ( Kawabe 1986 , 1987 , 1995 ). Fig . 1. Three paths of the Kuroshio (gray lines) and the bathymetry (m) south of Japan. The figure is a reproduction of Fig. 1 in Kawabe (1995) . Shown are the typical large meander (tLM), nNLM, and oNLM. The bimodal feature of Kuroshio south of Japan has important effects on local weather and climate. For example, Xu et al

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

turbulent entrainment flux on TIW time scales had a rectified warming influence of 0.37°C month −1 . In this article, we identify the mechanism responsible for the modulation of mixing by TIWs in a regional ocean model of the equatorial Pacific with a highly resolved TIW field. These simulations are combined with a one-dimensional (1D) vertical mixing model to quantify the net turbulent heat fluxes associated with TIWs and assess their sensitivity to the vertical mixing parameterization scheme. The

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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

filament are explored, in particular the impact of the vertical mixing that induces a turbulent thermal wind balance. Mechanisms responsible for the arrest of filamentogenesis are studied in section 6 . In section 7 , the impact of the filaments on the flow for the transport and mixing of tracers is analyzed in more details. Conclusions of the study are presented and discussed in section 8 . 2. Simulation setup The model used in this study is the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS; Shchepetkin

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Katherine McCaffrey, Baylor Fox-Kemper, and Gael Forget

for the quasigeostrophic flows. For all cases, passive tracers should behave as Obukhov and Corrsin predict when E ( k ) ∝ k −5/3 , or as the single eddy-turnover time-scale result of λ = −1 ( γ = 0) when E ( k ) ∝ k −3 . However, the wavenumber range where these spectral slopes should appear in quasigeostrophic flow is unclear as the effects of “surface” quasigeostrophy (SQG) and “interior” QG differ strongly in spectral slope and depth ( Tulloch and Smith 2006 ; Callies and Ferrari 2013

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Takeyoshi Nagai, Amit Tandon, Eric Kunze, and Amala Mahadevan

the internal-wave power gain , and quasigeostrophic vertical kinetic energy VKE QG is derived from the 1-km regional PSOM model. Similarly, a second scaling relationship between internal-wave energy reabsorption rate and VKE QG is obtained from the regional PSOM model. These relationships are then applied to the global 0.1°-resolution OGCM for the Earth Simulator (OFES) ( Masumoto et al. 2004 ), which allows estimation of VKE QG but not spontaneous generation of near-inertial waves, to

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Jörn Callies and Raffaele Ferrari

dissipation of compensated thermohaline variance by mesoscale stirring . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 39 , 2477 – 2501 . Smith , K. S. , and E. Bernard , 2013 : Geostrophic turbulence near rapid changes in stratification. Phys. Fluids, 25, 046601 , doi:10.1063/1.4799470 . Stammer , D. , 1997 : Global characteristics of ocean variability estimated from regional TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter measurements . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 1743 – 1769 . Tulloch , R. , and K. S. Smith , 2009

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