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Emily Shuckburgh, Helen Jones, John Marshall, and Chris Hill

1. Introduction Throughout the ocean, satellite altimetry data reveal a complex regional eddy kinetic energy (EKE) distribution ( Stammer 1997 ; Stammer et al. 2006 ). Significant enhancement in eddy activity is observed in the vicinity of strong currents: the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic, the Kuroshio and its extension in the Pacific, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Southern Ocean. Much of this eddy activity arises through baroclinic instability, although barotropic

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Guoqi Han and Weigen Huang

Giulivi 2004 ). Based primarily on tide gauge observations, the global mean sea level rose at a rate of 1–2 mm yr −1 during the last century ( Church et al. 2001 ). The geocentric rate of the sea level rise for the period from 1993 to 2003 was estimated to be 2.8 ± 0.4 mm yr −1 ( Cazenave and Nerem 2004 ). Studies using tide gauge data and satellite altimetry indicated significant regional differences, with some areas 10 times as high as the global average ( Cazenave and Nerem 2004 ) and others

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Shih-Nan Chen and Lawrence P. Sanford

diagram to classify axial wind effects on estuarine vertical stratification is proposed. 2. Numerical model We use the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS; Haidvogel et al. 2000 ) to simulate an idealized estuarine channel. ROMS is a hydrostatic, primitive equation model using a curvilinear grid in the horizontal and a stretched, terrain-following coordinate in the vertical. It has been widely used by the coastal ocean modeling community and is capable of simulating many estuarine flows with high skill

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Daniel P. Dauhajre, James C. McWilliams, and Yusuke Uchiyama

; Chapman and Lentz 2005 ; Lentz and Fewings 2012 ; Austin and Lentz 2002 ; Tilburg 2003 ). Recently, downscaling techniques ( Mason et al. 2010 ) applied to coastal regions have led to numerical simulations of the shelf with horizontal resolutions of O (10–100) m embedded in the regional circulation ( Romero et al. 2013 ; Uchiyama et al. 2014 ; Kumar et al. 2015 , 2016 ; Romero et al. 2016 ). These high-resolution simulations of coastal waters have revealed a dynamically more diverse and

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Weiwei Fu

). Within CPB models, biogeochemical tracers are coupled to physical circulation models through advection and diffusion. As a consequence, the hydrodynamics imposes strong constraints on the simulation of the ecosystems. The quantification of such constraints is thus of particular interest for the development and application of ocean ecosystem models. CPB models have been increasingly run in an operational way as well as for research purposes. For instance, in European regional seas, as of January 2012

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Rusty C. Holleman and Mark T. Stacey

nontidal variations in sea surface height. The combined effects of sea level rise and potentially increasing tidal ranges will have far-reaching impacts on coastal inundation as many low-lying areas either become uninhabitable or require massive mitigation measures to fend off higher sea levels. Regional studies such as Grinsted et al. (2013) also point toward increases in inundation due to more frequent and more extreme weather events. As inundation is a consequence of peak sea level, not mean sea

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Sabique Langodan, Luigi Cavaleri, Yesubabu Viswanadhapalli, and Ibrahim Hoteit

system in the Adriatic Sea . Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. , 11 , 2965 – 2979 , doi: 10.5194/nhess-11-2965-2011 . Bertotti , L. , L. Cavaleri , L. Loffredo , and L. Torrisi , 2013 : Nettuno: Analysis of a wind and wave forecast system for the Mediterranean Sea. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 3130–3141 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00361.1 . Bertotti , L. , L. Cavaleri , A. Soret , and R. Tolosana-Delgado , 2014 : Performance of global and regional nested meteorological models. Cont

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S. Djakouré, P. Penven, B. Bourlès, V. Koné, and J. Veitch

McGlade 2001 ; Hardman-Mountford and McGlade 2003 ). As expected, coastal upwelling in the northern Gulf of Guinea drives the productivity of the marine ecosystems. Zooplankton biomass ( Wiafe et al. 2008 ) as well as fishery productivity ( Cury and Roy 2002 ) are directly linked to the major upwelling season. In addition, previous studies have shown that upwelled colder waters could also modulate the amplitude of the African monsoon, illustrating the potential role of coastal upwelling on regional

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Xavier Couvelard, Patrick Marchesiello, Lionel Gourdeau, and Jerome Lefèvre

on the western side of Fiji, where advection allows all of the NFJ to separate from the coast and continue its zonal route ( Fig. 10a ). This is confirmation of the result given by the vorticity budget: topographic steering and advection terms have large regional and local values that tend to balance each other. Topographic steering is only partially attenuated by baroclinic effects and remains a dominant term at the local and regional scale where it is balanced by advection terms. The advection

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Tal Ezer

JANUARY 1994 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 191On the Interaction between the Gulf Stream and the New England Seamount Chain TAL EZERProgram in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey22 June 1992 and 9 March 1993ABSTRACT In the course of numerical simulations with a primitive equation regional model of the Gulf Stream, bottomtopography and the New England

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