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Takuji Kubota, Shinta Seto, Masaki Satoh, Tomoe Nasuno, Toshio Iguchi, Takeshi Masaki, John M. Kwiatkowski, and Riko Oki

). While an attenuation due to cloud ice is negligibly small for Ku and Ka bands, attenuation by the CLWC is larger in the Ka band than in the Ku band, as known in previous works (e.g., Meneghini and Kozu 1990 ). Therefore, estimating precipitation intensity with high accuracy from KaPR observations can require developing a method to estimate the attenuation due to CLWC and incorporate it into the algorithm. CLWC assumptions are common to spaceborne radar precipitation retrievals and regional

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Sarah Ringerud, Liang Liao, Ziad Haddad, Bartie L. Kelley, and Steven F. McLaughlin

used in the brightness temperature simulations is based on Eddington’s second approximation; see Kummerow (1993) . Although the slant-path application of the Eddington model has been proven effective in mitigating 3D effects of microwave radiative transfer in precipitating clouds ( Olson et al. 2001 ; Munchak and Kummerow 2011 ), a plane-parallel implementation of the Eddington model is used here, because it allows for an almost ideal parallel processing speedup of computations; see Hennessy and

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Atsushi Hamada and Yukari N. Takayabu

—are used (corresponding to granule IDs 540–3386), which are obtained after the orbit altitude of the satellite had stabilized at the altitude for nominal observations (which occurred around granule ID 533). Note that during this period, several software updates are applied to the KuPR to mitigate sidelobe clutter effects, which could have affected the observed reflectivity and precipitation rates. However, careful visual inspection of the data suggested that the influence of these special operations

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

perspective, rainfall systems around the Korean Peninsula appear to be quite distinct in terms of cloud dynamics and microphysics. As such, a globally optimized database, like the one used in the standard GPROF, is unlikely to perform optimally in retrieving the hydrometeor profiles associated with precipitation systems around the Korean Peninsula. Therefore, developing a database optimized for the oceans of East Asia is of paramount importance in regional applications, although the method described in

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Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Mark Kulie, Nai-Yu Wang, Ralph Ferraro, S. Joseph Munchak, and Veljko Petkovic

implementation . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 18 , 1838 – 1855 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(2001)018<1838:OORRFM>2.0.CO;2 . Berg, W. , L’Ecuyer T. , and Kummerow C. D. , 2006 : Rainfall climate regimes: The relationship of regional TRMM rainfall biases to the environment. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 434–454, doi: 10.1175/JAM2331.1 . Caine, S. , Lane T. P. , May P. T. , Jakob C. , Siems S. T. , Manton M. J. , and Pinto J. , 2013 : Statistical assessment of tropical convection

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