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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

forecast uncertainty is the representation of diabatic processes in NWP models. The convective parameterization schemes employed in all global models, and in some regional models, might underrepresent divergent outflow aloft, in part because the divergent outflow is a gridscale response to resolved precipitation processes, as well as parameterized convective heating and moistening ( Zadra et al. 2018 ). This error in the representation of diabatic processes affects the correct simulation of initial

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

conservation of mass and circulation within a PV isoline on an isentropic surface. The computation of the MLM results in a stronger background flow than the climatological time average and, hence, stronger PV gradients. If one transcends linear theory and accounts for nonlinear effects, the waves do have an impact on the background state. In practice it may, therefore, be an advantage to use a nonstationary background flow, which implicitly accounts for the feedback of the waves on the waveguide. For

Open access