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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

of vulnerable regional communities (e.g., small island developing states) to climate hazards, by developing stronger partnerships between communities and NMSs to provide targeted and user-friendly climate services that better meet community needs ( World Meteorological Organization 2011 ; Hewitt et al. 2012 ). This paper discusses how seasonal calendars can assist with climate communication and development of new climate services and how the information used to construct the calendars was

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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

1. Introduction Faced with overwhelming evidence for global climate change, the focus of research and policy has shifted toward understanding the mechanisms driving changes, climate change effects at regional scales, and how human communities must adapt to survive. However, the coarse resolution of current climate modeling efforts is frequently inappropriate for policy and intervention efforts ( Cash et al. 2006 ; Wilbanks and Kates 1999 ). Global and regional scales fail to capture how local

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Susan A. Crate

when there were particularly compelling stories to illustrate points made. In addition to these two methodologies employed in the research villages, we also worked closely with several scientists who are actively engaged in climate research in the Sakha Republic to consolidate regional climate data and to assess the extent to which contemporary policy addresses local climate issues. We returned from our first summer field season with a wealth of data on observations, causes, effects, future

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

increasingly being witnessed in continental Africa in the recent times, and this will likely have an adverse effect on human livelihoods and productive infrastructures in the future ( Noble 2007 ). More importantly, there are indications that climate change effects on agriculture will be severe in marginal areas such as dry lands or areas with low soil fertility ( Bates et al. 2008 ; Olesen and Bindi 2002 ). Agriculture, which is highly sensitive to changes in weather conditions, is one of the key

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

1. Introduction The relationship between climate and how it is understood by local communities is characterized as “perception,” lending this subject to subjectivity analysis ( Leiserowitz 2005 , 2007 ; Schlindwein et al. 2011 ; Bonatti 2011 ; Boulanger 2012 ; Aberra 2012 ). The studies usually begin with a questionnaire to evaluate the climatic effects on various socioeconomic sectors. For example, farmers are asked to identify the climatic characteristics they use to establish their

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

formation of many regional and global institutions, most notably the Comité permanent Inter-États de Lutte contre la Sécheresse au Sahel (CILSS; Permanent Interstate Committee to Combat Drought in the Sahel); the Club du Sahel of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD, later renamed the Sahel and West Africa Club); the United Nations (UN) International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); and the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UN CCD), one of three environmental

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Laurie Yung, Nicky Phear, Alayna DuPont, Jess Montag, and Daniel Murphy

agriculture. In addition to producing food, rangelands provide important wildlife habitat, recreational opportunities, open space, and ecosystem services ( Maczko et al. 2011 ; Huntsinger and Oviedo 2014 ). Thus, effective adaptation on rangelands is important for social, economic, and ecological reasons. There is a large body of research on the impacts of climate change on agriculture at national or regional scales, but very few studies explore the ways that individual producers or households adapt to

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Sandy Smith-Nonini

political ends in themselves, which were scale-making in their effects (transcending local/global divides), with the discursive flows actually constituting the transnational networks they flowed through. But the networks that emerged from the movement were relatively unstable in the aftermath of a convergent action and relied heavily on more vertical guidance from a small number of regional and global nonprofits for long-term integrity. This problem became evident with the shift to place-based World

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Randy A. Peppler

drought because they are pooling whatever water there is. Garrett said he had been observing dams on his property and found at least three of them, which portended drought. He said the beavers were chewing up his pecan trees for material for their dams. He said, based on this observation, “We are in a dry period!” b. Plants Rudy Jr. talked about the effects of change on pecan trees and plums. He said, “We have a pecan grove along the creek—hundreds of trees—and they make every other year. Right now

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Chie Sakakibara

world’s environmental health. The ICC developed a Global Summit held in Anchorage in May 2009 where global indigenous peoples raised the visibility, participation, collaboration, and role of themselves in local, national, regional, and international processes. It was a five-day UN-affiliated conference with the involvement of approximately 400 people from 80 nations. The organizer and participants’ intention was to develop strategies and partnerships that engage local communities and formulate

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