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Luis M. Farfán, Rosario Romero-Centeno, and G. B. Raga

structure changes that occurred during landfall; this discussion is based on satellite and radar observations as well as on upper-air soundings and gridded data; to determine the associated rainfall patterns from a regional network operated by the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) of Mexico; a comparison is made with respect to records from other events during the period 1969–2005; and to assess the ability of official forecasts, issued by NHC from 1–3 days before landfall, in the prediction of the

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Andrew M. Chiodi, Nicholas A. Bond, Narasimhan K. Larkin, and R. James Barbour

interior Pacific Northwest that surround the Columbia River basin. Since the existing precipitation frequency atlases (e.g., Bonnin et al. 2011 ) are not stratified by season, we first revisit the frequency distribution of summertime rainfall events, then systematically examine its relationship to regional flow conditions, focusing first on the regional flow anomaly direction, and then also considering the effects of flow strength. We define rainfall events as a day, or consecutive days, with >0.25-in

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Paul J. Roebber, Lance F. Bosart, and Gregory S. Forbes

outside of and within 1000 km,with a minimum separation of 100 km) has a measurable effect on skill. The results indicate that regional effects( on the meso-a scale) are manifested in forecasts of both temperature ( maximum and minimum) and precipi-tation amount ( by category) . Furthermore, these effects are a function of the experience level of the forecaster.Specifically, experienced forecasters are able to use regional knowledge to their advantage in forecasting tem-perature and precipitation

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Weihong Qian, Jun Du, Xiaolong Shan, and Ning Jiang

process, but simply to demonstrate how the incorporation of moisture effects in the parameter can improve the correlation between areal coverage of the parameter and the observed rainfall location. In the study, a regional heavy rain event that occurred on 1 July 1991 is used for a detailed analysis and method test. An independent dataset of 41 daily regional heavy rain cases from the notorious flooding year of 1998 in eastern China is used for a systematic evaluation to confirm the robustness of our

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Xiaogang He, Hyungjun Kim, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Kei Yoshimura, Eun-Chul Chang, Craig R. Ferguson, Jessica M. Erlingis, Yang Hong, and Taikan Oki

warm season DCP ( Lee et al. 2007 ). To clarify the effects of CPSs and resolution on the simulated diurnal variation of precipitation, sensitivity experiments were conducted in this study at both the regional and the mesoscale. This study will help test the performance of current CPSs over this specific region and help establish a basis for developing new CPSs. The structure of the manuscript is as follows. In section 2 we introduce the precipitation verification data, model and experimental

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Garth K. Ferber, Clifford F. Mass, Gary M. Lackmann, and Michael W. Patnoe

zones of heavier precipitation. A variety of mesoscaleand regional aspects of Puget Sound snowstorms are described including arctic fronts, coastal troughing andcyclogenesis, and additional mesoscale topographic effects. There is a strong correlation between El Nifio/Southern Oscillation and snowfall over Puget Sound, with lesser (greater) snow amounts during El Nifio (LaNifia) years.1. Introduction Predicting snowfall over the Puget Sound lowlandsis one of the most challenging and important

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Stéphane Bélair, Da-Lin Zhang, and Jocelyn Mailhot

VOL, 9, NO. 2 WEATHER AND FORECASTING JUNE 1994Numerical Prediction of the 10-11 June 1985 Squall Line with the Canadian Regional Finite-Element Model STI~PHANE B]~LAIR AND DA-LIN ZHANGDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada JOCELYN MAILHOTRecherche en Prdvision Num&ique, Atmospheric Environmenl Service, Dorval

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Chris C. Robbins and John V. Cortinas Jr.

economic effects. U.S. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command Tech. Rep. EP-105, Natick, MA, 217 pp . Bernstein, B. C. , 2000 : Regional and local influences on freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellet events. Wea. Forecasting , 15 , 485 – 508 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015<0485:RALIOF>2.0.CO;2 Bernstein, B. C. , and Brown B. G. , 1997 : A climatology of supercooled large drop conditions based upon surface observations and pilot reports of icing. Preprints, Seventh

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Yunji Zhang, Zhiyong Meng, Fuqing Zhang, and Yonghui Weng

routinely issued at various major operational centers, including the National Hurricane Center (NHC). One of these statistical models, the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS; DeMaria and Kaplan 1994 ), uses a combination of climatological, persistence, and synoptic parameters to provide intensity forecasts of Atlantic and eastern North Pacific TCs ( DeMaria and Kaplan 1999 ). This model has also been updated to include effects of land surface after landfall [decay SHIPS (DSHIPS

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Gregory S. Poulos, Douglas A. Wesley, John S. Snook, and Michael P. Meyers

1. Introduction During 24–26 October 1997, a deep cutoff low pressure system moved eastward across the southern Colorado Rocky Mountains producing blizzard conditions along the Front Range from Wyoming to southern New Mexico. In addition, this storm caused easterly hurricane-force winds at the surface near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, which destroyed about 5300 ha (1 ha = ∼2.5 acres) of west-slope forest. Heavy snow also occurred in Nebraska and Kansas. The effects on the public of these

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