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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

[e.g., Zach et al. (2011) and reports cited therein] at spatial scales similar to those here, finding some utility in sensitivities just upstream from a wind farm. Those studies did not evaluate the validity of the assumptions underlying the ESA nor did they quantify the effect of sampling error. Fog in the Salt Lake basin is expected to challenge ESA in two ways. First, the forcing is weak. Variability is on relatively small scales, and spatial covariances are weak. We can expect the effects

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

assimilation system (LDAS), but our own in-house comparison between the high-resolution LDAS (HRLDAS) soil moisture and GFS soil moisture yielded similar results. In this paper we examine how a regional overestimation of near-surface soil moisture in operational analyses over the Intermountain West during the fall (i.e., September and October) contributes to the underprediction of the DTR in a WRF-based forecasting system over Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) in the Great Salt Lake Desert of northwest Utah

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

spacing are generally incremental. With a regional climate simulation over complex terrain, Leung and Qian (2003) found that a higher-resolution simulation improves not only the spatial distribution and regional mean precipitation during summer but also snowpack during winter. However, they also commented that the accuracy of snow simulation is limited by factors such as deficiencies in the land surface model or biases in other model variables. The disagreement between these different studies

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