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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

. Miller , 2009 : Seasonal effects of Indian Ocean freshwater forcing in a regional coupled model . J. Climate , 22 , 6577 – 6596 , doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2990.1 . Seo , K.-H. , and W. Wang , 2010 : The Madden–Julian oscillation simulated in the NCEP Climate Forecast System Model: The importance of stratiform heating . J. Climate , 23 , 4770 – 4793 , doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI2983.1 . Seo , K.-H. , W. Wang , J. Gottschalck , Q. Zhang , J.-K. E. Schemm , W. R. Higgins , and A

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

enhanced subsidence is evident on either side of the ITCZ, with it being somewhat diminished over the NSA in comparison to that observed south of the ITCZ. To emphasize the regional impacts of Q r on the circulation, Fig. 13b shows ω r as a deviation from its north–south (i.e., 15°N–15°S) mean at each local time. This analysis demonstrates that at all times of day the differential radiative warming resulting from the effects of clouds and enhanced moisture in the ITCZ supports the local Hadley

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

-resolving simulation . J. Climate , 24 , 5571 – 5583 , doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4212.1 . Hagos , S. , L. R. Leung , and J. Duddhia , 2011 : Thermodynamics of the Madden–Julian oscillation in a regional model with constrained moisture . J. Atmos. Sci. , 68 , 1974 – 1989 , doi: 10.1175/2011JAS3592.1 . Holloway , C. E. , S. J. Woolnough , and G. M. S. Lister , 2013 : The effects of explicit versus parameterized convection on the MJO in a Large-domain high-resolution tropical case study. Part I

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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

regional model simulations (e.g., Sun et al. 2006 ; Stephens et al. 2010 ; Hagos et al. 2014 ). Fig . 4. The mean relationship between saturation fraction and precipitation (rain rate) at Addu Atoll from observations and the model simulations. The error bars represent the standard deviations of the precipitation in each of the 15 bins of saturation fraction. Even though this bias in the relationship between saturation fraction and precipitation is common, its overall contribution to the biases in

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Tim Li, Chongbo Zhao, Pang-chi Hsu, and Tomoe Nasuno

, H.-H. , and M. Lee , 2005 : Topographic effects on the eastward propagation and initiation of the Madden–Julian oscillation . J. Climate , 18 , 795 – 809 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-3292.1 . Hsu , H.-H. , B. J. Hoskins , and F.-F. Jin , 1990 : The 1985/86 intraseasonal oscillation and the role of the extratropics . J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 823 – 839 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<0823:TIOATR>2.0.CO;2 . Hsu , P.-C. , and T. Li , 2011 : Interactions between boreal summer

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

weaker variability than OLR on shorter time scales. The NCEP SST used by ERA-I in 1992/93 is only weekly, so for a fairer comparison to the daily SST in DYNAMO, we use NOAA Optimally Interpolated version 2 daily SST ( Reynolds et al. 2007 ) at the TOGA COARE location in Fig. 4d . Local time series show the local effects of daily and intraseasonal variability on OLR and SST ( Fig. 4 ). The magnitude of the vector formed from the first two PCs is about 1.5 standard deviations for most of DYNAMO as

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