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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

). Moisture, on the other hand, varies significantly in the tropics ( Fig. 1b ) depending on the local conditions. Sources of tropical moisture can be divided into large-scale convergence and surface latent heat flux. We further divide surface latent heat flux into regional average values and anomalies generated by locally enhanced evaporation from surface wind variations in cold pools produced during convective events. We address the relative role of these different water sources on convection as the

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Jean-Philippe Duvel

International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) dataset ( Knapp et al. 2010 ) on tropical cyclone observations. Using ERA-I makes it possible to construct an alternative climatology of TD initiations using an objective approach. The aim is to detect more TD initiations at an earlier stage compared to those reported in IBTrACS on the basis of information given by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMC). In IBTrACS, there are indeed only a few TDs that do not reach the TS

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Jian Ling, Peter Bauer, Peter Bechtold, Anton Beljaars, Richard Forbes, Frederic Vitart, Marcela Ulate, and Chidong Zhang

operational analysis using a relaxation time scale of 6 h. There are 91 vertical levels in the humidity relaxation experiment in order to better match the humidity profiles in the operational analysis. Humidity relaxation or nudging has been shown to be an effective way to make numerical simulations of the MJO closer to observations in regional models (e.g., Hagos et al. 2011 ), but relaxation (of a single field) may have a detrimental effect on the overall dynamical and thermodynamical balance of the

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George N. Kiladis, Juliana Dias, Katherine H. Straub, Matthew C. Wheeler, Stefan N. Tulich, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Klaus M. Weickmann, and Michael J. Ventrice

, which are present despite the lack of accompanying coherent eastward-propagating signals in the unfiltered fields. This is likely due in part due to the spectral ringing effects of the intraseasonal filtering with the imprint of the large amplitude March MJO4 event extending back in time. In all cases these signals would lead to the classification of MJO4 as a successive event, also inferring that late January event should be classified as an MJO. The indices all capture the timing of the onset of

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Xiouhua Fu, Wanqiu Wang, June-Yi Lee, Bin Wang, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Jingwei Xu, Juan Li, and Scott Weaver

with enhanced convection (minus OLR anomaly >30 W m −2 ) scattered around ( Fig. 5a ). Regional SLP is also systematically reduced ( Fig. 6a ). On day 15, the convective anomaly over the positive SST anomaly continues to enhance and become organized ( Fig. 5b ). A Kelvin–Rossby wave couplet is excited with two cyclonic Rossby wave–like disturbances straddling the equatorial western Indian Ocean along with the Kelvin wave response manifesting as an eastward-extended tongue of low SLP and easterly

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