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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

.14) ] from the total divergent wind and attribute the resulting divergent wind to jets in the tropical region. However, a caution is needed here. One should note that source due to convection based on the low-pass-filtered data cannot cover the small-scale parameterized convection. Therefore, the resulting divergent wind may also contain the effects of the heat sources associated with small-scale convection. The generation of large shearing motion in the vertical direction is thought to be responsible

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

). Research goals motivating the DEEPWAVE measurement program are summarized in Table 1 . To achieve our research goals, DEEPWAVE needed to sample regions having large horizontal extents because of large horizontal GW propagation distances for some GW sources. DEEPWAVE accomplished this goal through airborne and ground-based (GB) measurements that together provided sensitivity to multiple GW sources and their propagation to, and effects at, higher altitudes. DEEPWAVE was performed over and around the GW

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

excited by convection: Observations and effects on the stratospheric momentum budget . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 1058 – 1075 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<1058:MDITTS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<1058:MDITTS>2.0.CO;2 Plougonven , R. , and F. Zhang , 2014 : Internal gravity waves from atmospheric jets and fronts . Rev. Geophys. , 52 , 33 – 76 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2012RG000419 . 10.1002/2012RG000419 Prein , A. F. , and Coauthors , 2015 : A review on regional

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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

1. Introduction Internal gravity waves (GWs) play a significant role in atmospheric dynamics on various spatial scales ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Kim et al. 2003 ; Alexander et al. 2010 ; Plougonven and Zhang 2014 ). Already in the lower atmosphere GW effects are manifold. Examples include the triggering of high-impact weather (e.g., Zhang et al. 2001 , 2003 ) and clear-air turbulence ( Koch et al. 2005 ), as well as the effect of small-scale GWs of orographic origin on the predicted

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Markus Rapp, Bernd Kaifler, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Tyler Mixa, Robert Reichert, Natalie Kaifler, Stefanie Knobloch, Ramona Eckert, Norman Wildmann, Andreas Giez, Lukas Krasauskas, Peter Preusse, Markus Geldenhuys, Martin Riese, Wolfgang Woiwode, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Jose Luis Hormaechea, Diego Janches, Markus Garhammer, Jorge L. Chau, J. Federico Conte, Peter Hoor, and Andreas Engel

observation of GW ( Krisch et al. 2017 , 2020 ). GW effects on the distribution of trace gases were investigated by Woiwode et al. (2018) and Kunkel et al. (2019) . While GLORIA and ALIMA enable characterization of the atmosphere below and above the aircraft, respectively, the BAHAMAS system consists of a nose tip probe with a 5-hole wind sensor and yields in situ measurements of horizontal and vertical winds along with temperatures and pressures at flight level at high temporal resolution, i.e., of

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Gergely Bölöni, Bruno Ribstein, Jewgenija Muraschko, Christine Sgoff, Junhong Wei, and Ulrich Achatz

purposes, as by the Gravity-Wave Regional or Global Ray Tracer (GROGRAT) model ( Marks and Eckermann 1995 ; Eckermann and Marks 1997 ), is a well-established tool (e.g., Eckermann and Preusse 1999 ), but such analyses leave out the GW impact on the large-scale flow. A semi-interactive approach to studies of the interaction between GWs and solar tides has been described by Ribstein et al. (2015) , however, with a simplified treatment of the GW impact on the solar tides, using effective Rayleigh

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

coefficients r (valid for Ri ≫ ¼) from ECMWF 6-hourly operational analyses (stars) and 24-h running means (solid lines) using an averaged stratospheric value of N (gray) and N MAX taken in the UTLS (black). (b) The 3-hourly regional vertical energy fluxes over SI computed from WRF constrained by MERRA2 initial conditions at 4- (gray) and 12-km (black) altitude. Arrows mark the GW events, when the reflection coefficient is close to or larger than 0.5 and the EF z at 12 km is reduced by 47%–77% (red

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Nonlinear Simulations of Gravity Wave Tunneling and Breaking over Auckland Island

Tyler Mixa, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Markus Rapp

extended lee wave response similar to horizontal propagation over South Georgia Island simulated by Vosper (2015) . Eckermann et al. (2016) concluded that the gravity waves observed in the MLT were comprised of linear, nonhydrostatic gravity wave modes that remained stable up to ~70–80 km altitudes and reached the MLT in 1.5–4 h. The authors identified three stabilizing dynamical effects in their Fourier solutions that reduce the amplitude and keep the waves linear up to the MLT: (i) refraction by

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