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Yefim L. Kogan, Zena N. Kogan, and David B. Mechem

conditions. Note the prevalence of bimodal cloud drop distributions in the heavy drizzle case. From each simulation we extracted about 4000 to 6000 DSDs that were used to calculate cloud parameters, such as, for example, drop concentration, liquid water content, cloud and drizzle water content, radar reflectivity, and Doppler velocity. The set of DSDs, therefore, served as the source for deriving Q l and R retrievals using regression analysis and as a benchmark for evaluating them by comparing with

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM; Daly et al. 1994 ) is also applied. This high spatial daily precipitation analysis is then disaggregated to hourly values by employing temporal weights obtained from a coarser-scale 2.5° hourly precipitation analysis. As described in Mesinger et al. (2006) , NARR precipitation fields are very close to the precipitation analyses used as input. For this reason and also because NARR provides 3-hourly precipitation outputs, the PA scheme used by the RSM in

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

discussed in section 2 . In addressing some of the challenges, we also briefly comment on the quality of some of the datasets. In particular, we have three global land precipitation datasets that can be compared. We have also performed extensive diagnostics using 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data, but we limit how many of these are presented because of problems that will become apparent. The conclusions are given in section 5 . 2. Methods and

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

the lowest model layer and the 2500-m level sampled directly from model results. The 2500-m level wind U is calculated using a variation of the method by Koffi (1994) and Georgelin and Richard (1996) as follows. First, model winds are decomposed into U p and U c . Subsequently, the values of U c at 2500 m are calculated from wind profiles obtained from the linear regression of U c between the lowest model layer and 6000 m using the least squares method. Calculations of Fr in this way

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