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Bong-Chul Seo, Witold F. Krajewski, Felipe Quintero, Mohamed ElSaadani, Radoslaw Goska, Luciana K. Cunha, Brenda Dolan, David B. Wolff, James A. Smith, Steven A. Rutledge, and Walter A. Petersen

evaluation The evaluation began by examining and comparing accumulated rain totals for the entire campaign period. We present and discuss the observed discrepancies that arise from the different estimation algorithms among all acquired RR products. In addition, we perform an R – G comparison analysis to assess campaign totals at the ground reference locations. We also use the Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) rain gauge interpolated analysis ( Daly et al. 2008 ) as a

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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

-0163.1 . Doviak, R. J. , and Zrnić D. S. , 1993 : Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. Dover Publications, 562 pp . Draper, N. R. , and Smith H. , 1998 : Applied Regression Analysis. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 736 pp . Fabry, F. , Austin G. L. , and Tees D. , 1992 : The accuracy of rainfall estimates by radar as a function of range . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 118 , 435 – 453 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49711850503 . Fjørtoft, R. , and Lopès A. , 2001 : Estimation of the mean radar

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Luciana K. Cunha, James A. Smith, Witold F. Krajewski, Mary Lynn Baeck, and Bong-Chul Seo

). The importance of radars for weather analysis, warnings, and forecasting has been proven throughout the years. However, as shown by various studies, the accuracy of SP radar QPE is limited, and applying this information in hydrology requires careful attention ( Smith et al. 1996 ; Baeck and Smith 1998 ; Borga 2002 ; Cunha et al. 2012 ; Berne and Krajewski 2013 ). With the goal of improving radar QPE, the NWS has implemented a few initiatives, one of the most recent ones being the upgrade of

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Robert M. Beauchamp, V. Chandrasekar, Haonan Chen, and Manuel Vega

sophisticated attenuation-correction techniques such as the self-consistency approach from Gorgucci and Baldini (2007) . The fundamental premise of this attenuation-correction technique is that horizontal and vertical polarization specific attenuation— and , respectively—can be estimated from specific differential phase for frequencies up to Ku band ( Bringi and Chandrasekar 2001 ). We have introduced a preliminary attenuation correction for D3R observations at the Ku and Ka bands. A full analysis of

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Haonan Chen, V. Chandrasekar, and Renzo Bechini

-based relation from Atlas et al. (1973) is adopted when calculating rainfall rate from DSD data. Then, nonlinear regression is applied between rainfall rates and dual-polarization measurements in order to get the specific rainfall relations as follows: where Z h (mm 6 m −3 ) is the reflectivity factor at horizontal polarization and is differential reflectivity in linear scale. In addition, we compare the results of DROPS2.0 with the standard NEXRAD Z – R relation [Eq. (4a) ], DROPS1.0, and the

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