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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

stepwise approach to gain one single regression equation for use in impact analysis of climate change on stream water temperatures and related in-stream first-order decay rates: calculation of a global standard regression model, testing of various formulations for different climate zones, testing of seasonal hysteresis effects on a global scale, and validation with individual rivers in different climate zones. (i) Global standard regression model The nonlinear regression model [Eq. (1 )] was applied

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Aristeidis G. Koutroulis, Aggeliki-Eleni K. Vrohidou, and Ioannis K. Tsanis

last water resources to be affected by an extended dry period are usually surface and subsurface ( Sönmez et al. 2005 ). Drought indices are indispensible tools to detect, monitor, and evaluate drought events in both time and space. A large number of studies are included in the international literature on testing the efficiency and the effectiveness of various drought indices regarding detection and monitoring drought events and regional drought analysis ( Palmer 1965 ; McKee et al. 1993 ; Meyer

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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

of the twentieth century and that resolves the full diurnal cycle. An analysis of changes in the external drivers of evaporation that is relevant to both researchers and water-resource engineers is also made. The European Union WATCH project ( www.eu-watch.org ) seeks to assess the terrestrial water cycle in the context of global change in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A major component of the study is use of land surface models (LSMs) and general hydrological models (GHMs) to

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Kerstin Stahl, Lena M. Tallaksen, Lukas Gudmundsson, and Jens H. Christensen

of linear and polynomial regression analysis . Indag. Math. , 12 , 85 – 91 . Troy, T. J. , Wood E. F. , and Sheffield J. , 2008 : An efficient calibration method for continental-scale land surface modeling . Water Resour. Res. , 44 , W09411 , doi:10.1029/2007WR006513 . Uppala, S. M. , and Coauthors , 2005 : The ERA-40 Re-Analysis . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 131 , 2961 – 3012 . USGS , cited 2010 : WaterWatch . [Available online at http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/ .] van den

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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

the representation of extremes from future climate scenarios effectively is filtered out in the transfer process (e.g., Graham et al. 2007 ), which is not desirable in studies of future changes in extreme events. Themeßl et al. (2011) compared several empirical–statistical downscaling and error correction methods applied to daily precipitation simulated by regional climate models over the Alps. These methods include indirect methods such as multiple linear regression (e.g., von Storch 1999

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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

our control simulations will include some elements of natural variability) and (ii) changes in the human modification of river basins (e.g., land use change, reservoirs, floodplain loss, and channel alignments—which are not included in the version of TRIP used here; Hagemann & Dumenil 1998 ; Oki et al. 1999 ). It is possible that discrepancies arising from the different averaging periods used here may be small—in their analysis of continental river discharge records from 1948 to 2005, Dai et al

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