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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

% underestimate in winter. Currently the most practical approach to reduce these errors is to merge ground-based measurements from rain gauges or radar networks. A leading example is the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) research product 3B42 version 6 ( Huffman et al. 2007 , 2009 ) produced at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center. After merging intercalibrated passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from multiple space-borne sensors, and filling PMW

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

underestimates the rain gauges, in particular for larger rain rates (exceeding 15 mm h −1 ). This is reflected by the slope of a linear regression through the origin of 0.5, which can be interpreted as a multiplicative bias of −50%. At the event scale, this slope increases to 0.77, corresponding to a reduced—but still appreciable—multiplicative bias of −23%. For comparison, Fig. 13 shows the same analysis as Fig. 12 , but for one of the tipping-bucket rain gauges with respect to the other. Although the

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Ali Behrangi, Bisher Imam, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, Timothy J. Bellerby, and George J. Huffman

et al. 2000 ; Todd et al. 2001 ; Turk et al. 2000 ), and (iii) regression methods in which MW estimates are directly related to coincident IR pixel data to establish a regression-based equation for rain-rate estimation ( Kuligowski 2002 ; Martin et al. 1990 ; Miller et al. 2001 ; Vicente et al. 1998 ). As discussed by Kidd et al. (2003) , calibration-based combination strategies are affected by the inherent trade-off between the temporal and spatial details of the calibration domain. A

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

Forecast System (GFS), North American Mesoscale model (NAM), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Met Office (UKMO), and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The HPC gridded-point QPF values are forwarded to the NWS RFCs, where the Hydrometeorological Analysis and Support (HAS) meteorologist reviews the RFC regional gridded-point values for a specified number of sites throughout the RFC region and modifies these points when appropriate to the local terrain, regional climate, and

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

and rainfall distributions are examined from the perspective of the impacts of human-induced climate change on flood-generating mechanisms. Annual flood peak time series are stationary, provided that their distribution is invariant to translations of time ( Brillinger 1975 ), implying that the time series is free of trends, shifts, or periodicity. Villarini et al. (2009) performed an analysis of 50 USGS stations with a record of at least 100 yr within the continental United States and found that

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Joël Jaffrain and Alexis Berne

; Uijlenhoet et al. 2006 ). Any analysis of the DSD variability must take into account the sampling uncertainty associated with DSD measurements in order to better characterize the natural variability of the DSD, which is the environmental phenomenon of interest. For instance, Krajewski et al. (2006) pointed out the observed significant differences between DSD measurements from disdrometers of different types deployed in the same 100-m 2 area. Such strong instrumental differences can lead to significant

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