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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

weather and climate based on the National Climate Assessment ( Brown et al. 2014 ), including studies of Baker et al. (2002) , Grimmond (2007) , Hallegatte and Corfee-Morlot (2011) , and Rosenzweig et al. (2010) , etc. The majority of past studies related to the impacts of urbanization on weather have focused on temperature (e.g., Kalnay and Cai 2003 ; Hale et al. 2008 ) and precipitation (e.g., Shepherd 2005 ; Kaufmann et al. 2007 ; Kishtawal et al. 2010 ; Han et al. 2014 ; Liu and Niyogi

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

team evidenced skill at differentiating the likelihood of MCS occurrence in the 3-h windows, with roughly 30% of periods with low probability forecasts experiencing an MCS centroid in the low regions, 70% of moderate forecasts, and 90% of high forecasts having an MCS centered in the region of the outlined risk ( Fig. SB2 ). However, the centroids of the MCSs often missed the zone of highest assigned risk, instead occurring in the associated lower category of risk nearby. Bore and CI events were far

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Matthew D. Flournoy and Michael C. Coniglio

damaging wind gusts and hail. However, low-level winds strengthened, and storm-relative helicity increased in the lowest 1.5 km AGL ( Fig. 4 ) prior to the arrival of convection in the PECAN domain ( Fig. 5 ), supporting more robust, rotating updrafts and a risk for the development of low-level mesovortices and associated tornadoes. Fig . 2. The 500-hPa geopotential heights (black lines every 60 m), temperature (dashed red lines every 2°C), and winds (full barb = 10 kt) from the RAP analysis valid at

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