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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

systems play significant roles in creating the social, political, and economic conditions that result in differential exposure to hazards and thus differential—and often inequitable—distribution of vulnerability. This socially informed political–economic perspective on vulnerability has increasingly become central to a global understanding of climate change risk, climate justice, and climate impacts, as reflected in the more recent IPCC assessments ( Eakin and Luers 2006 ; Adger 2006 ). The emergence

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

concept, including its formulation, the known major forcing agents, and various applications of the concept. We attempt to capture the historical evolution of the above foci through approximately mid-2010. Of necessity, given the nature of the paper for the American Meteorological Society centennial monograph volume and the vast domain of the topic, the principal aim of this manuscript is to describe the evolution as evidenced through the literature, particularly the major international assessment

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

wildland fires. Accurate estimates of dead and live fuel moisture content are therefore essential for accurate assessment of wildland fire risk and spread. Dead fuels are classified by the time lag, which depends on the diameter of the fuel. The time lag approximates the time it takes for the fuel to reach two-thirds of its way to equilibrium with the environment. Dead fuels are classified as 1-, 10-, 100-, and 1000-h fuels. Dead fuel moisture depends only on environmental conditions. In addition to

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) developed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency ( DTRA 2008 ), and the Open Burn/Open Detonation Dispersion Model (OBODM) for simulating the effects of DOD materiel burned or detonated in the open air ( Bjorklund et al. 1998 ). To address a different kind of asymmetric threat, the Naval Research Laboratory developed an application called the Pirate Attack Risk Surface (PARS). Intelligence about the states of the atmosphere and ocean are dynamically

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

other convectively induced damaging winds that occurred in Argentina, following a format somewhat similar to that of “Storm Data” from the U.S. National Climatic Data Center. Damage assessment of all events was conducted in person by Schwarzkopf and her damage survey team, who adopted the Fujita scale in 1971 ( Schwarzkopf and Rosso 1993 ). The first publication addressing the atmospheric conditions accompanying a tornado (or, more accurately, the occurrence of a tornado-like vortex) in Brazil was

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

flood watch and warning products, and the practice has been promoted for international adoption by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The WFO areal alerts and the NWM data products represent the diversity of strategies for flash flood forecasting, from local assessment resulting from experts integrating hydrometeorological information to the automated outputs of a very high-resolution LSM. Globally, development is underway to create fine-resolution, real-time distributed flood risk maps

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer . J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 17 051 – 17 067 , https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD03988 . 10.1029/96JD03988 Kaye , J. A. , and T. L. Miller , 1996 : The ATLAS series of Shuttle missions . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 23 , 2285 – 2288 , https://doi.org/10.1029/96GL02228 . 10.1029/96GL02228 Khan , R. , R. Anwar , S. Akanda , M. D. McDonald , A. Huq , A. Jutla , and R. Colwell , 2017 : Assessment of risk

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Kerry Emanuel

mostly been the province of a small number of catastrophe modeling firms. Globally, tropical cyclones are the leading cause of insured losses and a major source of suffering and mortality among natural hazards, and to make further progress, we now must move away from risk assessment based solely on historical storm statistics. To do so will require academic institutions to demolish some of the stovepipes (e.g., between science and engineering) that currently discourage basic researchers from more

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

mobility through travel funds for meeting and short-term missions. COST Action 720 (2000–06), entitled “Integrated Ground-Based Remote Sensing Stations for Atmospheric Profiling,” supported researchers from 12 countries ( Engelbart et al. 2009 ). The main objective of the action was the development and assessment of cost-effective integrated ground-based remote sensing stations for atmospheric profiling of wind, humidity, and clouds. It made important contributions to the development of techniques for

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

to the effect of volcanic aerosol from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. [From WMO (2015 ).] With growing evidence of the harmful effects of anthropogenic halogens on the ozone layer and the associated risks for life and human health resulting from enhanced surface-UV radiation, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) developed in 1977 a World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer and conducted a series of international scientific ozone assessments. Following the Vienna Convention for the Protection of

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