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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

to implement an integrated drought monitoring and forecasting system at federal, state, and local levels; fostering and supporting a research environment focusing on risk assessment, forecasting, and management; creating an early warning system for drought to provide accurate, timely, and integrated information; developing interactive systems, such as the web portal, as part of the early warning system; and providing a framework for public awareness and education about droughts ( NPIT 2007 ). It

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Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo

drought plans ( Wilhite 1996 ; Wilhite et al. 2007 ). Recent works have reviewed the development of drought indices and compared their advantages and drawbacks ( Heim 2002 ; Keyantash and Dracup 2002 ; Mishra and Singh 2010 ; Sivakumar et al. 2010 ). However, very few studies have performed robust statistical assessments by comparing different drought indices, which may allow recommending the preferential use of one of them based on objective criteria ( Guttman 1998 ; Keyantash and Dracup 2002

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Ashok K. Mishra and Vijay P. Singh

major role in risk management, drought preparedness, and mitigation. Drought indices have been commonly used for prediction and simulation ( Mishra and Singh 2011 ), and they are also used for a variety of applications ( Quiring 2009 ). Several models have been proposed in simulating and forecasting droughts. Using a regression model, Kumar and Panu ( Kumar and Panu 1997 ) predicted agricultural drought characteristics considering the variables affecting the grain yield in the region as explanatory

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Daniel J. McEvoy, Justin L. Huntington, John T. Abatzoglou, and Laura M. Edwards

, 2004 : A self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index . J. Climate , 17 , 2335 – 2351 . Wilhite , D. A. , and M. Buchanan-Smith , 2005 : Drought as hazard: Understanding the natural and social context. Drought and Water Crises: Science, Technology, and Management Issues, D. A. Wilhite, Ed., CRC Press, 3–29 . Wu , H. , G. H. Hubbard , and D. A. Wilhite , 2004 : An agricultural drought risk-assessment model for corn and soybeans . Int. J. Climatol. , 24 , 723 – 741 .

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Di Long, Bridget R. Scanlon, D. Nelun Fernando, Lei Meng, and Steven M. Quiring

Assessment Product 3.3, 180 pp . Karl , T. R. , R. M. Melillo , and T. Peterson , 2009 : Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press, 188 pp . Kiktev , D. , D. M. H. Sexton , L. Alexander , and C. K. Folland , 2003 : Comparison of modeled and observed trends in indices of daily climate extremes . J. Climate , 16 , 3560 – 3571 . Kunkel , K. E. , S. A. Changnon , B. C. Reinke , and R. W. Arritt , 1996 : The July 1995 heat wave in the

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Charles W. Lafon and Steven M. Quiring

Ecosystem Fragmentation in the Americas, G. A. Bradshaw and P. A. Marquet, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 49–87 . Aldrich , A. R. , C. W. Lafon , H. D. Grissino-Mayer , G. G. DeWeese , and J. A. Hoss , 2010 : Three centuries of fire in montane pine-oak stands on a temperate forest landscape . Appl. Veg. Sci. , 13 , 36 – 46 . Andreu , A. , and L. A. Hermansen-Báez , 2008 : Fire in the South 2: The southern wildfire risk assessment. Southern Group of State Foresters Rep., 30 pp . Bailey

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