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Brandon L. Parkes, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Jeff Neal, and David Demeritt

1. Introduction With the shift to more risk-based approaches to managing flooding, flood hazard maps and simulation models have assumed new prominence as instruments for informing policy decisions about the regulation of land use and spatial planning, pricing and availability of flood insurance, and the allocation of resources for flood defense schemes. With so much at stake in those decisions, it is important to reduce the uncertainties associated with scientific assessments of flood risk and

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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

hydrologic processes. Thus, the very existence of dam could potentially modify the design and operation components that were conceived during the predam phase. This is because future patterns of extreme weather are expected to be different from the past records that were used for the design/operation of dams and for the consequential flood risk assessment of the downstream infrastructure ( Hossain et al. 2013 ). Generally, the vulnerability assessments performed to study effects of anthropogenic climate

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Tim Bardsley, Andrew Wood, Mike Hobbins, Tracie Kirkham, Laura Briefer, Jeff Niermeyer, and Steven Burian

used by SLC. (PET is perturbed by same temperature increase.) Abbreviations are as follows: CK for City Creek; PC for Parleys Creek; BCW for Big Cottonwood Creek; LCW for Little Cottonwood Creek; and Duches for the Duchesne River. These results (indicating diminished flows with warming) agree qualitatively with other regional studies such as the West-Wide Climate Risk Assessment ( Gangopadhyay and Pruitt 2011 ) and the Joint Front Range Climate Change Vulnerability Study (JFRCCVS; Woodbury et al

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

) has been studied. The question addressed in that study was as follows: How do reservoirs and/or LULC change modify extreme flood patterns, specifically probable maximum flood through local atmospheric feedback mechanisms? Study of PMP/PMF is necessary as flood used for dam design is PMF (or a fraction of it), which is decided by the designer's criteria and the risk assessment ( FEMA 2004 ). The results from Yigzaw et al. ( Yigzaw et al. 2012 ) have shown that the size of reservoirs has marginal

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

. 2007 ), annual mean temperatures will rise more than the global average and the warming is likely to be largest in summer. Moreover, the majority of the general circulation models (GCMs) foresee an increase, in frequency, of extreme daily precipitation, despite a decrease in total values. Thus, this tendency can lead to longer dry periods, increasing the risks of droughts, interrupted by extreme intense precipitation, enhancing the flood risk ( Bates et al. 2008 ). Average runoff in southern

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Mohammad Karamouz, Erfan Goharian, and Sara Nazif

Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model in order to analyze the water resource of the Indian river system under the possible impact of the climate change. The severity of flood and drought is analyzed to find the vulnerable areas within the constraints of the uncertainty of climate change projections. In this study, because of the lack of a regional climate model (RCM) in the study area, different GCMs have been used to define the extreme scenarios of climate change. Table 1. List of the

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M. Sekhar, M. Shindekar, Sat K. Tomer, and P. Goswami

as a groundwater stressed district because of overutilization of groundwater for irrigation and drinking water needs during the last two decades in comparison to the resulting recharge from rainfall ( Planning Commission 2007 ). Even though there is a national framework for groundwater development and assessment ( GEC 1997 ), this assessment is limited mainly to agricultural regions/watersheds with a minimum scale of about 500 km 2 with little emphasis for urban towns. Hence, water utilities of

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