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Cléa Denamiel, Xun Huan, Jadranka Šepić, and Ivica Vilibić

. Oceanology , 39 , 16 – 24 . Rupert , C. , and C. Miller , 2007 : An analysis of polynomial chaos approximations for modeling single-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems . J. Comput. Phys. , 226 , 2175 – 2205 , . 10.1016/ Saltelli , A. , 2002 : Sensitivity analysis for importance assessment . Risk Anal. , 22 , 579 – 590 , . 10.1111/0272-4332.00040 Saltelli , A. , M. Ratto , T

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Philip Sura and Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

stress the more general aspect of our analysis. Weather and climate risk assessment is about understanding the tails (extreme events) of probability density functions. We have shown that it is possible to develop stochastic models from first physical principles, which are capable of reproducing the observed statistics of extreme events. We, therefore, believe that sophisticated stochastic models (e.g., with multiplicative noise) are essential to model and understand extreme events in weather and

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Rusty C. Holleman and Mark T. Stacey

decisions, which in turn rely on predictions of flooding and sea level rise. Relevant management actions fall into two main categories. The first category, shoreline “hardening,” describes the construction of hydrodynamic barriers such as concrete sea walls or levees. These projects may be motivated by flood risks, “reclamation” of shallows into dry land, or creation of ponds for salt harvesting. In many areas shoreline hardening is widespread and significantly alters the dynamics of the basin, such as

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Christopher G. Piecuch, Ichiro Fukumori, and Rui M. Ponte

World Ocean’s busiest waterways due to its vast oil and gas stores, which are of long-standing geopolitical, economic, and military interest ( al-Chalabi 2007 ; Barnes and Myers Jaffe 2006 ; Larson 2007 ). Bordering eight nations, the Persian Gulf is also home to large coastal populations and major coastal cities including Dubai and Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and Doha, Qatar, which are exposed to risk of flooding and inundation related to sea level change ( Al-Jeneid et al. 2008 ; Lafta et

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Francis P. Bretherton, Michael J. Mcphaden, and Eric B. Kraus

. Note that, although ability to reproducethe detailed structure of an anomaly was monitoredas a qualitative diagnostic tool, only the area averagesover the prescribed subregions were used in the quantitative assessment of the performance of each samplingconfiguration. This procedure may appear somewhat arbitrary sincein practice it will always be difficult to obtain a consensus about the ensemble of large-scale anomalies tobe expected in the ocean and therefore, also about theoptimal

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Joey J. Voermans, Henrique Rapizo, Hongyu Ma, Fangli Qiao, and Alexander V. Babanin

I.-J. Moon , 2017 : Numerical simulations of ocean surface waves under hurricane conditions: Assessment of existing model performance . Ocean Modell. , 118 , 73 – 93 , . 10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.08.005 Miyake , M. , R. W. Stewart , and R. W. Burling , 1970 : Spectra and cospectra of turbulence over water . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 96 , 138 – 143 , . 10.1002/qj.49709640714 Monin , A. S

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Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

of a model buoyancy profile Figure 1 presents the solution of the eigenproblem in a compact nondimensional form. However, it is difficult from this figure to estimate the variables with the most immediate physical meaning. Therefore, at the risk of some redundancy, we will consider a specific example and find the eigenfrequencies in dimensional variables. This approach has the advantage that one can make an a posteriori assessment of the validity of the NIO approximation. We must first solve the

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Peter O. Zavialov, Renato D. Ghisolfi, and Carlos A. E. Garcia

noise in the data, whereas the usual method of computing gradients by taking finite differences may significantly increase the noise. Given the scales of cross-isotherm velocity component obtained, the chosen size of the 5 × 5 subset (approximately 200 km) corresponds to the so-called Courant–Friederich–Lewy condition (see the paper of Kelly cited above). As mentioned above, Eq. (4.6) may produce large errors in regions of small temperature gradients. To avoid this risk, we explicitly introduced

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Helen L. Johnson and Chris Garrett

essential for the assessment and improvement of mixing parameterizations. It is also important for a range of engineering and biological applications. The diapycnal mixing rate can be determined using measurements of velocity and/or temperature microstructure (e.g., St. Laurent and Schmitt 1999 ). However, the instrumentation required is at present too expensive and specialized for the measurement of ocean mixing to be routine. As a result, spatial and temporal data coverage is sparse. One alternative

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Leonel Romero and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction The characterization of surface gravity waves is important for air–sea interaction processes, such as the exchange of energy, momentum, mass, and heat between the ocean and the atmosphere, as well as for risk assessment for offshore structures and related engineering applications. This study is concerned with the characterization of spatial statistics of the sea surface elevation using airborne lidar observations. Several field investigations have reported on the statistics of

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