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Philip L. Chaney and Greg S. Weaver

advises mobile home residents to go to the nearest sturdy building or storm shelter ( NOAA 2009 ). Therefore, tornado preparedness is especially important for mobile home residents. One of the first steps in preparing for a tornado should be to obtain some type of information or training on tornado hazards. This training might include participating in a tornado drill or learning the definition of a tornado warning, which has been shown to reduce risk in previous studies. For example, Eidson et al

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Richard W. Dixon and Todd W. Moore

counties and their respective CWA identified as highly vulnerable by two out of the three assessment methods. Counties are listed alphabetically. Table 7. Texas counties and their respective CWA identified as highly vulnerable by all three assessment methods. Counties are listed alphabetically. Fig . 7. Texas counties identified as highly vulnerable to tornadoes by two out of the three and three out of three methods (i.e., very high by methods 2 and 3; high risk, high exposure by method 1). Of the

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David M. Schultz, Eve C. Gruntfest, Mary H. Hayden, Charles C. Benight, Sheldon Drobot, and Lindsey R. Barnes

. Drobot et al. (2007) examined the responses in the Warning Project surveys to determine the risk factors associated with people driving into flooded streets, finding that the following people were more likely to drive into flooded roads: those who did not take warnings seriously, those who were between the ages of 18 and 35, those who did not know that motor vehicles were involved in more than half of all flood fatalities, those who had not experienced a flood previously, and those who did not know

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Walker S. Ashley, Stephen Strader, Troy Rosencrants, and Andrew J. Krmenec

American Dream. North Point Press, 320 pp. Ehrenhalt, A. , 2013 : The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City. Vintage, 288 pp. Fekete, A. , 2012 : Spatial disaster vulnerability and risk assessments: Challenges in their quality and acceptance . Nat. Hazards , 61 , 1161 – 1178 . Field C. B. , and Coauthors , Eds., 2012 : Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Cambridge University Press, 582 pp. Gillham, O. , 2002 : The

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Joseph T. Ripberger, Hank C. Jenkins-Smith, Carol L. Silva, Deven E. Carlson, and Matthew Henderson

-setting damage caused by tornadoes in 2011 serves as an important and sobering reminder that scientific and technological advancements in our understanding of severe weather can only go so far—tornadoes occur in a social environment wherein the exposed population, not technology or technical experts, are responsible for risk mitigation and protective action. In such an environment, effective communication between providers of hazardous weather information (i.e., forecasters) and the public at large

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S. Hoekstra, K. Klockow, R. Riley, J. Brotzge, H. Brooks, and S. Erickson

). What seems optimal to an individual may appear unnecessary or irrational from a scientific risk assessment perspective. Theories of risk perception have not yet been tied explicitly to lead-time preference, but their foundational principles can be used to formulate ideas about how lead time can be understood in such a context. Weather-related damage does not occur in a black box; rather, severe weather events (and tornadoes in particular) have many attributes that influence interpretation. Storms

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Robert Drost

decision making. 2. Theoretical foundations A number of studies have suggested a link between experiences, knowledge, and decision making under risk exists. In fact, people have a tendency to make decisions based on small amounts of previous experience ( Hertwig and Pleskac 2010 ). Navigating risk situations requires a complete understanding and assessment of the risk and needs to take into consideration previous experiences and other sources of information impacting the context of the situation

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Kevin D. Ash, Ronald L. Schumann III, and Gregg C. Bowser

. Winters, A. M. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Spatial risk assessments based on vector-borne disease epidemiologic data: Importance of scale for West Nile virus disease in Colorado . Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. , 82 , 945 – 953 , doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0648. Wogalter, M. S. , Conzola V. C. , and Smith-Jackson T. L. , 2002 : Research-based guidelines for warning design and evaluation . Appl. Ergon. , 33 , 219 – 230 .

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Amber Silver and Jean Andrey

highest risk of tornadoes is the southwestern portion of the province of Ontario ( Etkin et al. 2001 ; Conrad 2009 ), which is located at the northernmost extent of America’s “Tornado Alley” and cradled by Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario of the Great Lakes system ( Etkin et al. 2001 ). Based on assessments of tornado frequency and intensity, an F3 tornado affects southern Ontario every 5 yr, on average ( Sills et al. 2004 ); less intense tornadoes typically affect southern Ontario every year ( Banik

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Philip L. Chaney, Greg S. Weaver, Susan A. Youngblood, and Kristin Pitts

. Psychol. , 22 , 451 – 470 . Dow, K. , and Cutter S. L. , 2000 : Public orders and personal opinions: Household strategies for hurricane risk assessment . Environ. Hazards , 2 , 143 – 155 . Duttweiler, P. C. , 1984 : The internal control index: A newly developed measure of locus of control . Educ. Psychol. Meas. , 44 , 209 – 221 . Duval, T. S. , and Mulilis J. P. , 1999 : A person-relative-to-event (PrE) approach to negative threat appeals and earthquake preparedness: A field study

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