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Julie L. Demuth, Rebecca E. Morss, Leysia Palen, Kenneth M. Anderson, Jennings Anderson, Marina Kogan, Kevin Stowe, Melissa Bica, Heather Lazrus, Olga Wilhelmi, and Jen Henderson

1. Introduction The risks posed by many natural hazards are dynamic in that the threat and information available about it evolve. When a hurricane threatens a coastline, for example, its position and intensity changes, and forecast and preparedness information is refined as the storm approaches. People’s assessments of and responses to natural hazard risks are also dynamic, as individuals process information and interact with each other to communicate about, interpret, and respond to the

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Kelley M. Murphy, Eric C. Bruning, Christopher J. Schultz, and Jennifer K. Vanos

assessment in the International Electrotechnical Commission Standard for Lightning Protection, Part II (IEC 62305-2:2010; referred to herein as IEC62305) was used ( International Electrotechnical Commission 2010 ). The risk assessment framework of IEC62305 is intended to produce an annual value of lightning risk for structures. This risk value helps to determine whether or not protection measures are required in order to reduce losses due to lightning. For this research, the risk assessment was adapted

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Stephen M. Strader, Alex M. Haberlie, and Alexandra G. Loitz

, and vulnerability? How does the combination of risk, exposure, and vulnerability influence potential tornado impacts and severity within CWAs? Last, how might this information be used by NWS forecasters, Integrated Warning Teams (IWT), and the Warning Decision Training Division (WDTD) to improve forecaster knowledge, mitigation strategies, and community resilience-building efforts? a. Climatological tornado risk, exposure, and vulnerability assessments Several previous studies have examined

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Duzgun Agdas, Forrest J. Masters, and Gregory D. Webster

experience. Potential hazards of shadow evacuation behavior in no-evacuation zones are also discussed in detail by Dueñas-Osorio et al. (2012) . While much of the literature focuses on the potential benefits of better risk perception and increased impact of better risk assessment in improving mitigation and preparedness activities, the authors discuss the potential issues associated with shadow evacuations. The authors also discuss the discrepancies in storm surge, which is the more destructive

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Daniel S. Wilks and Kenneth A. Horowitz

’ probability assessments for the event. Furthermore, this result is achieved without requiring a counterparty, that is, someone other than the exchange who is willing to sell the contracts. The landfall segments have been defined mainly as counties in order that hedgers need only pay to hedge against local risks. However, the length scale of hurricane damage is typically somewhat larger than the length of the typical county coastline, so buying contracts for adjacent counties also would generally be

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Brian C. Zachry, William J. Booth, Jamie R. Rhome, and Tarah M. Sharon

inundation maps. This paper presents the methodology used to create high-resolution U.S. storm surge inundation maps using existing storm surge products created at the NHC, and provides a quantitative assessment of the societal impacts caused by storm surge flooding from category 1–5 hurricanes based on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (SSHWS). The information, data, statistics, and storm surge risk maps presented in this paper are highly desired and invaluable to emergency managers, state and

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Gabrielle Roesch-McNally, Michael Chang, Meghan Dalton, Scott Lowe, Charlie Luce, Christine May, Gary Morishima, Philip Mote, Alexander “Sascha” Petersen, and Emily York

1. Introduction The Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) includes Volume I, the Climate Science Special Report ( Wuebbles et al. 2017 ), and Volume II, Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States ( Reidmiller et al. 2018 ). The Global Change Research Act of 1990 requires that the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) deliver a National Climate Assessment to Congress and the U.S. president every 4 years. This paper reflects on the development of the NCA4 Volume II

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Simon Albert, Kirsten Abernethy, Badin Gibbes, Alistair Grinham, Nixon Tooler, and Shankar Aswani

1. Introduction The risk of coastal inundation from climate change associated sea level rise is one of the more pressing concerns for coastal communities globally. This threat is of particular concern for communities in the less developed and small island states such as those in the Pacific, who are considered the most vulnerable to sea level rise ( Dasgupta et al. 2009 ; McClanahan and Cinner 2012 ). While variation is expected, the western Pacific region is likely to experience 0.1–0.9 m of

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S. Niggol Seo and Laura A. Bakkensen

( Ali 1999 ; Woth et al. 2006 ; Karim and Mimura 2008 ; Frazier et al. 2010 ). Acknowledgments We thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. No funding was received for this research. REFERENCES Ali , A. , 1999 : Climate change impacts and adaptation assessment in Bangladesh . Climate Res. , 12 , 109 – 116 , doi: 10.3354/cr012109 . 10.3354/cr012109 Bakkensen , L. A. , and R. Mendelsohn , 2016 : Risk and adaptation: Evidence from global hurricane damages and

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Kevin M. Simmons, Paul Kovacs, and Gregory A. Kopp

the averages found in the NRC report ( Fricker et al. 2014 ). Lombardo et al. (2015) provided a similar analysis for the 22 May 2011 Joplin tornado, along with detailed damage statistics for residential construction. This work makes it possible to conduct benefit–cost analysis on wind-resistant construction in areas prone to high tornado risk. 3. Wind-resistant construction The new Moore, OK, building code ( City of Moore 2014 ) increased the design wind speed to 135 mph (3-s gust at 10 m in

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