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Edward N. Rappaport

. Hurricane Danny, 16–26 July 1) Synoptic history Like tropical cyclones Ana, Bill, and Claudette, Danny came from a weather system of nontropical origin. On 13 July, a broad upper-tropospheric trough over the southeastern United States helped initiate a cluster of thunderstorms over the lower Mississippi River Valley. This area of convection drifted southward over the north-central Gulf of Mexico coastal waters, and appears to have contributed to the formation of a small, weak

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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

Fajardo River in Puerto Rico to overflow its banks. Rainfall reached up to 50 mm across portions of Hispaniola, the Turks and Caicos, the Bahamas, and eastern Cuba. In some of the mountainous areas of Hispaniola, there were unofficial reports of near 100 mm of rain. Although the center of Chris passed about 100 n mi to the north of the Dominican Republic, the cyclone still caused heavy rains and significant floods in and around Santo Domingo, where many roads were impassable due to the combined

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Richard J. Pasch, Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, and Stacy R. Stewart

Atlantic Ocean. This trough extended from the north-central Gulf of Mexico across Florida and into the Atlantic on 1 August and moved little for the next two days. A poorly defined low pressure center was first noted over the north-central Gulf of Mexico on 3 August. Satellite, surface, and radar observations indicated that the low became better organized just east of the mouth of the Mississippi River on 4 August, and the system developed into a tropical depression around 1800 UTC that day. The

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

Virginia coast, 0.6 to 1.2 m along the Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey shorelines, and 0.3–0.6 m along the coast of Long Island and in the Long Island Sound. In the North Carolina estuaries, storm surge values were generally 1–2 m above normal tide levels over the eastern portions of the Pamlico Sound and most of the Albemarle Sound. Values of 2–3 m above normal tide levels were observed in the western end of the Pamlico Sound with a maximum value of 3.2 m reported on the Neuse River in Craven

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

strength as it moved southeast into northeast Nebraska and northwest Iowa, leaving a broad swath of extensive damage from high winds, hail and tornadoes in its wake. At 1730 CST, a strong (F3) tornado touched down near Maskell in extreme northeast Nebraska. This tornado moved southeast for 88 km before crossing the Missouri river, where it strengthened to F4 intensity and continued on the ground for another 20 km in Iowa. This was the second of three F4 tornadoes to occur in 1986, and it produced the

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

Valley, AR 3 F3 Mississippi and Oklahoma each reported two tornadoes. The tornadoes in Oklahoma were the first tostrike that state so early in the year since 1977. One ofthese was the first strong (F2) tornado in 1985 and thefirst to result in injuries. This twister caused damageestimated at $400 000 and injured three people in thesmall community of Harmony as it produced a 16-kmintermittent path just north of the Red River in southeast Oklahoma. Alabama

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

objective Dvorak numbers ( Velden et al. 1998 ). The highest estimated surge values, near 1.8 m, occurred on the sound (west) side of the Outer Banks at Buxton and Ocracoke Village. Waters rose to 1 m above normal levels along the lower reaches of the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers. The highest measured rainfall amount associated with Alex, 192 mm, occurred at Ocracoke, with 143 mm reported in Beaufort. Doppler radar data indicated a large area of 100–200-mm accumulations across extreme southeastern Craven

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, James L. Franklin, John L. Guiney, and Richard J. Pasch

Network (C-MAN) station reported maximum sustained winds of 41 kt as the center of the hurricane passed about 60 n mi to the south. Bret was slow moving and radar estimates suggest maximum storm total rainfall of over 760 mm in Kennedy County. None of the observed rainfall totals in Table 2 come close to that value. Aransas Pass is north of the area of peak rainfall and reported a storm total of 320 mm. The heavy rains accompanying the weakening tropical cyclone caused notable river flooding in the

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

during 26–28 August. The first period saw maximum sustained winds increase from 65 to 95 kt in the 24-h period ending 0600 UTC 27 August. An eye appeared in infrared satellite imagery early on 27 August, and Katrina became a category 3 hurricane at 1200 UTC that day about 365 n mi southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River. Intensification then temporarily stopped as the hurricane underwent an eyewall replacement cycle. Accompanying these developments was a significant expansion of the wind

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R. A. Maddox, D. M. Rodgers, and K. W. Howard

, long-lived convective system for severaldays before the event culminated in the destructiveJohnstown flash flood. About half of the 1981 MCCsgrew from initial thunderstorms which developedover the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, withthe genesis region for the remainder of the systemsgenerally lying to the west of the Mississippi River. The satellite images shown in Fig. 2 capture some1506 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWTABLE 2. 1981 Mesoscale Convective Complexes.VOLUME 110Time (GMT)/DateMax. cloud

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