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Kingtse C. Mo, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

Atlantic, the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) mode has been linked to rainfall and river flow anomalies over the United States. The AMO is defined as the first rotated empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of non-ENSO SSTAs, but the associated principal component (PC) is highly correlated to the mean Atlantic SSTAs from the equator to 60°N ( Mestas-Nunez and Enfield 1999 ). The warm (cold) phase of the AMO is associated with less (more) rainfall over the Mississippi River basin and more (less

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Matías Méndez and Víctor Magaña

characterizes medium-term trends in precipitation and is considered to be more sensitive to moisture conditions than the Palmer index at these time scales. It may also be associated with anomalous streamflow and reservoir levels. Droughts usually take a season or more to develop, so SPI-12 is used to reflect the long-term precipitation patterns related to volumes of rivers or reservoir levels. For the present study, SPI-24 months will be used to characterize persistent drought, capturing low

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Caio A. S. Coelho and Lisa Goddard

. , and L. Goddard , 2001 : Probabilistic precipitation anomalies associated with ENSO. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 82 , 619 – 638 . McCabe , G. J. , and D. M. Wolock , 2007 : Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L22708 . doi:10.1029/2007GL031764 . Meehl , G. A. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Global climate projections. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge

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Yochanan Kushnir, Richard Seager, Mingfang Ting, Naomi Naik, and Jennifer Nakamura

-season warm equatorial Pacific event (El Niño) is associated with larger-than-normal precipitation over the American West and the U.S. Southeast and over northern Mexico. The anomalies in Fig. 1a amount to up to 60% of the total seasonal RMS variability (not shown). During the same season, warmer-than-normal TNA SSTs are associated with drier-than-normal conditions in most of the same locations, but prominently so over the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico and in the Mississippi River basin and

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Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and Sumant Nigam

, 2004 : A global data set of Palmer drought severity index for 1870–2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 1117 – 1130 . Delworth , T. L. , and Coauthors , 2006 : GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics. J. Climate , 19 , 643 – 674 . Enfield , D. , A. Mestas-Nuñez , and P. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in

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Philip J. Pegion and Arun Kumar

temperature and precipitation trends on U.S. drought. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 34 , L20709 . doi:10.1029/2007GL031541 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez , and P. J. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental US. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 . GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team , 2004 : The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J

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Renu Joseph and Ning Zeng

precipitation in comparison with temperature makes it more challenging to diagnose the impact of volcanoes on precipitation. One of the first studies to address the precipitation response to volcanic events was Robock and Liu (1994) . They used the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM) to analyze the precipitation response to major volcanoes and noted a reduced tropical precipitation for 1–2 years following the volcanic signal. Oman et al. (2005) used Nile River records to

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Kirsten L. Findell and Thomas L. Delworth

– 2103 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nunez , and P. J. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 . England , M. H. , C. C. Ummenhofer , and A. Santoso , 2006 : Interannual rainfall extremes over southwest Western Australia linked to Indian Ocean climate variability. J. Climate , 19 , 1948 – 1969 . Findell , K. L. , T. R. Knutson , and P. C. D

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Siegfried Schubert, David Gutzler, Hailan Wang, Aiguo Dai, Tom Delworth, Clara Deser, Kirsten Findell, Rong Fu, Wayne Higgins, Martin Hoerling, Ben Kirtman, Randal Koster, Arun Kumar, David Legler, Dennis Lettenmaier, Bradfield Lyon, Victor Magana, Kingtse Mo, Sumant Nigam, Philip Pegion, Adam Phillips, Roger Pulwarty, David Rind, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Jae Schemm, Richard Seager, Ronald Stewart, Max Suarez, Jozef Syktus, Mingfang Ting, Chunzai Wang, Scott Weaver, and Ning Zeng

Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 8851 . doi:10.1029/2002JD003296 . Enfield , D. , A. Mestas-Nuñez , and P. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 . Gates , W. L. , and Coauthors , 1999 : An overview of the results of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP I). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 29 – 55

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Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas and Sumant Nigam

Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climate , 17 , 3109 – 3124 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez , and P. J. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 . Furtado , J. C. , E. Di Lorenzo , N. Schneider , J. E. Overland , and N. A. Bond , 2011 : North Pacific decadal variability and climate change in the IPCC AR4 models. J. Climate , in

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