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Jeanne M. Thibeault and Anji Seth

freshwater in the northeast region, threatening the water supplies of large metropolitan areas. For example, New York City discontinued the release of water from its reservoirs along the Delaware River in the summer of 1965 to maintain its supply, consequently lowering streamflow levels and threatening the water quality of downstream Philadelphia ( Hayhoe et al. 2007 ). In 1963–64, several wells ran dry in southern Ontario and Great Lakes water levels dropped to extremely low levels ( Bonsal et al. 2004

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Sanjiv Kumar, James Kinter III, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Zaitao Pan, and Jennifer Adams

to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 . Gent , P. R. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The Community Climate System Model version 4 . J. Climate , 24 , 4973 – 4991 , doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1 . Hazeleger , W. , and Coauthors , 2010 : EC-Earth: A seamless Earth-system prediction approach in action . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 91 , 1357 – 1363 . Johns , T. C. , and Coauthors , 2006 : The new Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM1

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Eric D. Maloney, Suzana J. Camargo, Edmund Chang, Brian Colle, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, James Kinter, Benjamin Kirtman, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Zaitao Pan, Richard Seager, Yolande Serra, Anji Seth, Justin Sheffield, Julienne Stroeve, Jeanne Thibeault, Shang-Ping Xie, Chunzai Wang, Bruce Wyman, and Ming Zhao

California and the upper Colorado River basin ( Fassnacht 2006 ). A MEM decrease in April SWE of up to 80 mm or greater is projected for the central Rockies and Canadian Rockies, with general decreases of smaller amplitude indicated elsewhere. The spatial resolution of the models is generally too coarse to represent snow-related processes throughout western North America because of the smoothed topography. For example, the details of the Sierra Nevada range on the California–Nevada border are absent

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Anji Seth, Sara A. Rauscher, Michela Biasutti, Alessandra Giannini, Suzana J. Camargo, and Maisa Rojas

energy, divergence, and evaporation are examined for the Hist and RCP8.5 experiments. While the coupled models include relatively sophisticated treatments of land surface processes, they vary in substantive ways the processes included and in the details and levels of complexity of implementation. At least two models now incorporate subgrid-scale hydrology ( Gedney and Cox 2003 ; Oleson et al. 2008 ; Lawrence et al. 2011 ), and many include river networking to route runoff to appropriate ocean

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Hailong Liu, Chunzai Wang, Sang-Ki Lee, and David Enfield

.1002/joc.1881 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez , D. A. Mayer , and L. Cid-Serrano , 1999 : How ubiquitous is the dipole relationship in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures? J. Geophys. Res. , 104 ( C4 ), 7841 – 7848 , doi:10.1029/1998JC900109 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nuñez , and P. J. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28, 2077 – 2080

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Leila M. V. Carvalho and Charles Jones

; Higgins et al. 1997 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ). There are also lowland areas associated with NAMS: the lower Colorado River valley and neighboring low desert areas. These regions play a significant role in the formation of the thermal low, which is an important feature of NAMS ( Adams and Comrie 1997 ). In the present climate, the onset of NAMS occurs between May and June, when precipitation intensifies along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Adams and Comrie

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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

CMIP5 . Climate Dyn. , 40 , 2123 – 2165 . Emanuel , K. , R. Sundararajan , and J. Williams , 2008 : Hurricanes and global warming: Results from downscaling IPCC AR4 simulations . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , 347 – 367 . Enfield , D. B. , A. M. Mestas-Nunez , and P. J. Trimble , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relationship to rainfall and river flows in the continental US . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 . Folland , C. K. , D. E. Parker

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