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H. F. Dacre, P. A. Clark, O. Martinez-Alvarado, M. A. Stringer, and D. A. Lavers

Identifying the source of atmospheric rivers: Are they rivers of moisture exported from the subtropics or footprints left behind by poleward traveling storms? Studies of heavy precipitation occurring in the winter over land in the midlatitudes have found that these events are almost always associated with extratropical cyclones ( Lackmann and Gyakum 1999 ; Viale and Nunez 2011 ; Hawcroft et al. 2012 ). These heavy precipitation events often occur when warm moist air, located in the cyclone

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

the United Kingdom ( Mark 2013 ). Although most major winter floods in the United Kingdom are connected to persistent orographically enhanced precipitation caused by atmospheric rivers (e.g., Lavers et al. 2011 , 2012 ; Champion et al. 2015 ), frontal systems associated with slow-moving summer and autumn cyclones also cause U.K. precipitation extremes, with heavy rainfall often caused by slow-moving frontal rainbands to the northwest of the cyclone center ( Hand et al. 2004 ). The importance of

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

to the upper part of the vertical section ( Fig. 3a ). In this case, exhibits maximum intensity ( ) toward the section’s northern edge ( Fig. 3c ). This flux produces a water vapor mass flow with a westward component across the vertical curtain below 7 km of . This value is comparable in magnitude to the typical meridional water vapor mass flow in a Northern Hemisphere atmospheric river ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). Figure 3 also shows vertical sections for model-derived variables through

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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

) covering 14 DIAMET IOPs (flights into the same meteorological system on successive days are grouped into the same IOP). Nine of these IOPs were in 2011 and five were in 2012, and all but one involved the FAAM aircraft. The exception, IOP 10, was declared a DIAMET IOP because of the passage of a mesoscale convective system over the Chilbolton radar that led to widespread flooding in the Severn Valley, the largest river catchment in the United Kingdom. Three flights are also listed from The Observing

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