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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

or extension of irrigation facilities is inevitable to feed the burgeoning population in the coming decades ( Shiklomanov 2000 ). Water used for irrigation returns to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or back to rivers as return flow, which can potentially affect the terrestrial water and energy balances ( Haddeland et al. 2006b ; Tang et al. 2007 ; Ozdogan et al. 2010 ) as well as the flow of water vapor into the atmosphere ( Boucher et al. 2004 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ; Puma and Cook

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S. Nandargi and O. N. Dhar

, Pune; rainfall records from the project authorities such as National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), Central Water Commission (CWC), New Delhi, working in the Himalayas for construction of irrigation systems and hydroelectric power projects in different river basins; the forest departments of the Himalayan states (1975–2000); the rainfall registration authorities of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, J&K, and Rajasthan supplied daily

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

, namely from field campaigns over single grid points. Of course, there were scaling issues, as the models represented the land surface at a resolution of about 10 4 km 2 while observations were representative of a much smaller area. Also, there were a limited number of observations available for the years 1987 and 1988. The second validation approach was more integrative, and took the simulated runoff from the various LSMs as input to a common global river routing model ( Oki and Sud 1998 ), whose

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

-pixel agreement numbers are higher in several specific latitudes where large open waters are located: the Caspian and Aral Seas and the Great Lakes at about 45°N and Lake Victoria and the Amazon and Congo Rivers near the equator. d. Geographical distribution In this subsection, we show the geographical distribution of the per-pixel agreement numbers by focusing on selected areas for each water-related land cover type. 1) Snow and ice As mentioned above, the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

of sand in Tottori were approximately 400–1800 J m −2 s −1/2 K −1 for a volumetric soil water content of approximately 0%–5% ( Kamichika 1988 ), and those of silty loam with sand in the Kherlen River watershed, Mongolia (46.5°–48.5°N, 108°–114°E) were approximately 1000–1800 J m −2 s −1/2 K −1 for a volumetric soil water content from approximately 10% to saturation ( Sugita et al. 2008 ). The Kherlen River watershed was classified as mainly typical steppe zone and some forest steppe and dry

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

turning and validation . J. Hydrol. , 270 , 105 – 134 . Falkenmark, M. , and Rockström J. , 2004 : Balancing Water for Humans and Nature . Earthscan, 247 pp . Farquhar, G. D. , and Sharkey T. D. , 1982 : Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis . Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. , 33 , 317 – 345 . Fekete, B. M. , Vörösmarty C. J. , and Grabs W. , 2002 : High-resolution fields of global runoff combining observed river discharge and simulated water balances . Global Biogeochem. Cycles

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

. , Nathan R. , Midgley G. F. , Fragoso J. M. , Lischke H. , and Thompson K. , 2005 : Forecasting regional to global plant migration in response to climate change . Bioscience , 55 , 749 – 759 . Nijssen, B. , O’Donnell G. M. , Lettenmaier D. P. , Lohmann D. , and Wood E. F. , 2001 : Predicting the discharge of global rivers . J. Climate , 14 , 3307 – 3323 . Norby, R. J. , and Luo Y. , 2004 : Evaluating ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO 2 and global warming in

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

% of the reserve of terrestrial organic carbon on earth ( Sabine et al. 2004 ). The common reed Phragmites australis ( P. australis ) is widespread throughout wetlands worldwide; this species is found on every continent, except Antarctica, from subarctic to warm temperate zones ( Osada 1993 ; Clevering and Lissner 1999 ; Brix et al. 2001 ). It is a C3 plant and a perennial grass, which typically forms closed and monodominant stands in the littoral zone of lakes, ponds, along rivers, and in

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

; Oklahoma), and Little River (LR; Georgia). At each of the four watersheds, long-term surface soil moisture measurements were collected at hourly (RC) or half-hourly (WG, LW, and LR) intervals using between 8 and 15 sensors per watershed (Stevens Water Hydra Probe sensors inserted horizontally at 5-cm depth), distributed over an area of size similar to that of the AMSR-E satellite footprint. From the individual sensor measurements within each watershed, area-average surface soil moisture measurements

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