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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

cloudiness. Freshwater fluxes from rain and river runoffs are important in maintaining the sea surface salinity (SSS) structure in the NIO, where important salinity gradients exist. Precipitation data come from the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) product ( Xie and Arkin 1996 ). This product has been shown to produce better surface salinity fields than others for the Indian Ocean ( Yu and McCreary 2004 ). Major river runoffs are also taken into account in our experiments

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Tommy G. Jensen

et al. (1994) climatology with an e -folding time of 6 days. Since rivers and runoff are not included in the model, a short time scale is required for adequate freshwater fluxes in coastal regions with high precipitation such as the Bay of Bengal. Providing this forcing means that the differences found between the climate scenarios are directly caused by wind-driven differences for the surface layer. To explore the evolution of tracers during an extreme year, the model was spun up for 6 years

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