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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) refer to narrow channels of enhanced water vapor transport concentrated in the lower atmosphere ( Zhu and Newell 1994 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ). Occupying less than 10% of the earth’s circumference, ARs account for over 90% of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). While ARs occur globally, their impacts are most prominent when they make landfall and interact with the topography of the west coast areas of midlatitude

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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

; Cunha et al. 2012 ), and the choice of hydrologic model or modeling complexity ( Carpenter and Georgakakos 2006 ; Zhu et al. 2013 ). This study builds upon the above works, providing a comprehensive evaluation of three different satellite products and their gauge-adjusted counterparts and comparing them against a reference precipitation dataset derived from a dense gauge network over the upper Adige River basin of the eastern Italian Alps. Given the strong mountainous relief (200–3900 m MSL) of the

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

performance of PERSIANN-CDR in capturing the behavior of historical extreme precipitation events over China. Their results showed the capability of PERSIANN-CDR in reproducing similar spatial and temporal patterns of daily precipitation extremes as those depicted by the East Asia (EA) ground-based gridded daily precipitation dataset. In another study by Hagos et al. (2016) that investigated changes in the frequency of landfalling atmospheric river and extreme precipitation in the simulation of the

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

temporal and spatial scales. These analyses were limited to selected areas of EA, that is, river basins such as Baro–Akobo and Juba–Shabelle ( Thiemig et al. 2012 ), the Nile ( Haile et al. 2013 ), and Ethiopian river basins ( Romilly and Gebremichael 2011 ), or areas of complex topography such as the Ethiopian highlands and the Rift Valley ( Hirpa et al. 2010 ; Dinku et al. 2007 , 2008 , 2011 ) and Uganda ( Maidment et al. 2013 ; Asadullah et al. 2008 ). These studies focused on evaluating the

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

, while the MHS shows the highest rain–no-rain threshold at about 0.2 mm h −1 over land, but higher over the coastal oceans; these higher thresholds indicate that the satellite estimates are overestimating the occurrence of precipitation in these regions. However, all show similar patterns in the distribution of the threshold, with generally higher values over the Mississippi River valley and lower values over the mountainous western United States and along the Appalachians in the east. The

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

– 154 , doi: 10.1017/S1350482704001239 . Cassé, C. , Gosset M. , Peugeot C. , Pedinotti V. , Boone A. , Tanimoun B. A. , and Decharme B. , 2015 : Potential of satellite rainfall products to predict Niger River flood events in Niamey . Atmos. Res. , 163 , 162 – 176 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.01.010 . Chambon, P. , Roca R. , Jobard I. , and Aublanc J. , 2012 : TAPEER-BRAIN product algorithm theoretical basis document. Megha-Tropiques Tech. Memo. 4, 13 pp. [Available

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